Review questions for Biology 230, Fall 2014
1. Why are viruses not cells?
Potential answers include:
1) Genetic program for limited operations only. No intrinsic means to use it
2) Reproduction only through interaction with host
3) Limited responses to st
Thermodynamics in cellular reactions
I. Metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism
II. Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions
A. Equilibrium & Disequilibrium
B. Thermodynamics in isolated systems: 1st and 2nd Laws of
C. What is entropy?
Reaction Kinetics and Enzymes
I. Enzyme Function
(A) DGo (thermodynamics) vs. EA (kinetics) of reactions
(B) Structure and mechanism of enzymes
II. Quantitative Kinetics: What affects V?
Catalyzed vs. Uncatalyzed reaction kinetics
v vs [S]: Michae
Enzyme Inhibition & Allostery
I. Inhibition of enzyme activity
(B) Reversible (intro to competitive and non-competitive)
II. Reversible inhibition of Michaelis enzymes
(C) Kinetic analysis of difference
Protein structure & function: structural basis
of protein-ligand binding and catalysis
3-D Analysis of structure
the Protein Data Bank (PDB)
http:/www.pdb.org/pdb/home/home.do (pdb.org should do)
PDB software and entries
Demonstration and T
DNA Replication & Transcription
I. DNA Replication
(A) Semi-conservative replication, maintaining parental strand
(B) 5 to 3, leading and lagging strands
(C) RNA primers
(D) Unwinding and other functions
(A) The DNA end problem
DNA & Chromatin Structure
Identification of DNA as the chemical containing genetic
information and the determination of its structure, a great
story in the history of science
II. Underlying structure of DNA
(A) A double helix (of two strands)
I. Fundamentals: Much known, but much ongoing investigation
(A) Folding into a native structure
(B) Hierarchy of protein structure
II. Amino acids and the peptide bond
(A) Peptide bond, backbone and side chains (R groups)
(B) Amino acid
Review questions for Biology 230, Fall 2013
1. Why are viruses not cells?
2. Name two ways in which prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are similar and three
ways in which they differ.
3. Which of the following is a similarity between prokaryotes and eukaryo
Study questions for Bio 230, exam 2
1. How are energetically unfavorable reactions made favorable?
2. What is the difference between the equilibrium constant and the reaction quotient, and how
does that relate to metabolite concentrations in glycolysis?
Looking under a microscope, you identify an organism with a nucleus.
Which other components would you expect it to have?
a protein coat, cytoskeleton
b mitochondria, protein coat
c endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton
d circular, cytopl
1. Give a biological example of passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.
2. A mutation in an ion channel has increased flux twofold. Using Ficks law, what property
of the pore has probably changed?
3. A membrane is permeable only to
I used to have an open mind but my
brains kept falling out. -Steven Wright
I was taught that the human brain was
the crowning glory of evolution so far, but I
think it's a very poor scheme for survival.
-Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
Quiz 4 is due t
The difference between school and life? In school,
you're taught a lesson and then given a test. In life,
you're given a test that teaches you a lesson.
Life is a source of infection
-Van Halenor virus philosophy?
Quiz #2 (on Blackboard Learn)
All architecture is shelter, all great architecture is the design of space that contains, cud
proteins?) in that space.
Philip Johnson, discussing cell membranes and protein structures?
Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. I can never be
1. Major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
1. Division of cell into nucleus and cytoplasm
2. Complex chromosomes contained DNA
3. Complex membranous cytoplasmic organelles like ER, Golgi complex
4. Presence of two copies