Biol 241 2008 Lecture 2: Mendelian Genetics:
I) The concepts of heredity before Mendel A) Homunculous: a preformed human embryo in gametes. B) Blended inheritance: Parental traits are mixed and stably changed in the offspring. This was popular as biologis
Quiz 3-A (20 points)
1) Use your knowledge of the E. coli lactose system to complete the
following table. Insert a + where an enzyme is produced and a - where
no enzyme is produced. The first one has been done as an exampl
Quiz 2 (20 points)
1) Chromosome 3 of wheat carries three loci (a, b, and c). A testcross of triple
recessives with F1 plants heterozygous for the three genes yields progeny having
the following genotypes:
Biol241, Quiz 5
1) A Drosophila geneticist has obtained females that carry attached-X chromosomes homozygous for a recessive mutation (y) that causes the body to be yellow instead of gray (The attached-X causes the two homologous X chromosomes t
Biol241 - 2010
1) Imagine a simple diploid organism with eight chromosome in the diploid set (2n=8). What is the total number of chromosomes in a cell from this organism at prophase of mitosis? a) 2 b) 4 c) 8 d) 16 2) Using the same diploid organis
Biol241, Quiz 6
1) In a mixed copolymer experiment using polynucleotide phosphorylase, 1/4G:3/4C was added to form the synthetic message. The resulting amino acid composition of the ensuing protein is shown in the table below. Based on this info
Biol 241 - Spring 2008
Final Exam 5/03/2008
Total: 150 points 75 questions (2 point each)
Use the answer sheet (bubble sheet) because the question booklet will not be graded. Be sure the answer sheet is filled in with #2 pencil.
Be sure to fill in your id
Lecture 2: Mendelian Genetics:
I) The concepts of heredity before Mendel
A) Homunculous: a preformed human embryo in gametes.
B) Blended inheritance: Parental traits are mixed and stably changed in the
offspring. This was popular as biologists
BIOL241 - 2014
Lecture 1: Chromosome Assortment mitosis and meiosis
Nature of Chromosomes
- In eukaryotic cells, DNA is complexed with histones into thin fibers. During
mitosis and meiosis, these fibers coil and condense to form chromosomes.
- Each chromo
1. Beadle and Tatum showed that nutritional
mutations in the bread mold Neurospora
caused the loss of an enzymatic activity that
catalyzes an essential reaction in wild-type
2. Based on their studies, Beadle and T
LECTURES 26, 27 & 28
23, 25, 28 October 2013 (P. J. Hollenbeck)
Reading: for lect 26, pp. 531-40 (& DVD 16.1, 3, 4); for lects 27/28, pp.540-67 (& DVD 16.2, 6)
Probs: 9.4 - 9.8; exam III12, #5, #6
I. Varieties of signaling between
CHM 26505 Homework 6, 50 pts
Due at 1:30pm, Friday, 11/22/13
(in BRWN 4103 or by email attachment to [email protected])
1. (14 pts) Reaction of Compound A with HCl forms the chlorohydrin
Structure of Alcohols and
Some Bioactive Alcohols and Ethers!
Essence of !
1) Alternative forms of a gene are called
2) Mutation is the source of alleles.
3) The wild-type allele is the one that occurs
most frequently in nature and is usually,
but not always, dominant.
Classification of alleles
Epistasis occurs when the effect of one
gene (dominant) or gene pair
(recessive) masks the effect of
a be either dominant or or gene pair.
Can nother gene recessive
Phenotypic variation depending strictly on
the parental origin of the chromosome
carrying a particular gene.
Different from mutation because imprint
can be reversed in succeeding
Thought to occur before or during gamete
Isolation of auxotrophic mutants
Bacteria undergo conjugation, in which genetic
information from one bacterium is transferred
to another and recombines with the second
Multiple repair mechanisms exist to counteract
DNA polymerases have proofreading activity
1. DNA polymerases are
able to recognize and
correct errors in
1. Mismatch repair corrects errors that
Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCR copies a specific DNA sequence through
in vitro reactions that can amplify target DNA
sequences present in very small quantities.
PCR requires two oligonucleotide primers, one
Immune system: B and T cells
Theory of clonal selection
The structure of immunoglobulin
Gene rearrangement at the light chain locus
Gene rearrangement at the heavy chain locus
Rearrangement requires RAG1 and RAG2
Cancer cells share two fundamental
1) Abnormal cell
growth and division
2) Abnormalities in the
normal restraints that
keep cells from
invading other parts
of the body
Some differences between c
Oncogene example: cyclin
1) Cyclins form complexes with CDKs that are
important regulators of each phase of the
cell cycle. Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E are
1) ras genes
1. Principle of variation. Among individuals
within any population, there is variation in
morphology, physiology, and behavior.
2. Principle of heredity. Offspring resemble
their parents more than they resemble
BIOL241 Introduction to Genetics
and Molecular Biology
Midterm II (105 points) - B
Use scantron sheet for Question A (1-39).
Indicate test form B on your bubble sheet.
TranscriptionThe synthesis of RNA using one strand of DNA as a template
TranslationThe synthesis of a protein takes place on ribosomes using the information and
encoded in messenger RNA
Three steps of transcription
1.) Initiation Have strand of DNA and t
1. Waxy endosperm (wx), shrunken endosperm (sh), and yellow seedling (v) are encoded by three
recessive genes in corn that are linked on chromosome 5.
A corn plant homozygous for all three recessive alleles is crossed with a plant hom
Quiz 1A (20 points)
A) Multiple-Choice Questions (12 points; 2 points each)
1) In the nuclei of somatic cells from an XXXX individual, you expect to see:
A. 0 Barr body.
B. 1 Barr body.
C. 2 Barr bodies.
D. 3 Barr bodi