Differences between prokaryotic
and eukaryotic transcriptions
1. Location: transcription in eukaryotes
occurs in the nucleus and is not
coupled to translation.
2. Eukaryotic transcription requires
What is Genetics?
The study of heredity
The study of gene
Gene is the fundamental unit of
Why is Genetics Important?
-Impact on plants, animals, and
-Fundamental in the study of
-Basis for diseases
Functions of Mitos
Genetic map: by recombination frequency
Physical map: by DNA basepairs
First free-living organism sequenced: Influenza virus
Map-based (directed) sequencing
Map-based (directed) sequencing
Steps in sequencing a genome
Immune system: B and T cells
Theory of clonal selection
The structure of immunoglobulin
Gene rearrangement at the light chain locus
Gene rearrangement at the heavy chain locus
Rearrangement requires RAG1 and RAG2
Cancer cells share two fundamental
1) Abnormal cell
growth and division
2) Abnormalities in the
normal restraints that
keep cells from
invading other parts
of the body
Some differences between c
Oncogene example: cyclin
1) Cyclins form complexes with CDKs that are
important regulators of each phase of the
cell cycle. Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E are
1) ras genes
Title: Production and Characterization of a Genome Library from Phage Lambda
Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to clone specific segments of the lambda phage
genome in order to create a library of recombinant plasmids. This is achieved by us
PCR Paper - Nabilah Hamdiah (Section 005)
Introduction: The hypothesis for this experiment is that sheep is more closely related to pigs
than to humans by comparing their 16/18S ribosomal RNA genes. It is important to note that all
the DNA samples chosen
4 November 2014
The Radish on Coke
Abstract: The enzyme peroxidase has been identified to be an essential enzyme in
plants due to its functioning in cell wall synthesis as well as its ability to fight off
Project 1 Rubric
20 Points Total
Introduction (3 points)
Summary of results
VERY brief of why technique is important
VERY brief background (genome library)
Materials and Methods (2 points)
Note of changes made
Citation of Dr. Andersons handouts
Project 2 Rubric
Due Date: April 21/23
Times New Roman size 12
No bigger than 1 margins
2 pages single spaced OR 4 pages double spaced
Use .5 margins
Use text wrap to wrap the text around figures and pictures
CORRECTIONS TO Todays LAB: changes should be documented in lab notebook
Step 1: To all 3 tubes you will add 30L of calf DNA cut with EcoRI restriction endonuclease before boiling your tubes.
Your TA will dispense the calf DNA because we have a very limite
Are the genes linked or not?
Abstract: Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly has been utilized for genetic research
since the early 1900s with T. H. Morgan pioneering the field. The aim of using Drosophila is to
study the arrangement of genes on t
Fly Paper Rubric
Basic Paper Format (3 points)
_ Adequate Title (0.5)
_ Each Section Titled (1)
_ Correct Spelling and Grammar (NO first person) (1)
_ Paper Typed and Pages Numbered (0.5)
Abstract (6 points)
_ 1 paragraph (1)
_ Small amount of background
Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCR copies a specific DNA sequence through
in vitro reactions that can amplify target DNA
sequences present in very small quantities.
PCR requires two oligonucleotide primers, one
Multiple repair mechanisms exist to counteract
1. DNA polymerases are
able to recognize and
correct errors in
1. Mismatch repair corrects errors that
remain after proofreading.
2. The correct DNA stran
Mutation classification: Causes
1) Spontaneous mutations: happen
naturally and randomly.
2) Induced mutations: result from the
influence of an extraneous factor,
either natural or artificial.
3) Adaptive mutations: organisms may
direct mutations to adap
Heredity before Mendel
There is a preformed mini-person
(homunculus) inside an egg or a sperm.
1. Only one parent contributes to the
2. A homunculus within a homunculus?
1) Alternative forms of a gene are called
2) Mutation is the source of alleles.
3) The wild-type allele is the one that occurs
most frequently in nature and is usually,
but not always, dominant.
Classification of alleles
1) What is epistasis?
2) How does this affect the Mendelian
3) What does it mean?
Epistasis occurs when the effect of one
gene (dominant) or gene pair
(recessive) masks the effect of
another gene or gene pair.
Can be eithe
Phenotypic variation depending strictly on
the parental origin of the chromosome
carrying a particular gene.
Different from mutation because imprint
can be reversed in succeeding
Thought to occur before or during gamete
Chromosome Mutations: Variation in
Chromosome Number and
Variations in chromosome number are known as
aneuploidy when an organism gains or loses one or
more chromosomes and has other than an exact
multiple of the haploid set.
a) A type of chromosomal aberration in which a segment of
a chromosome is turned around 180 within a
b) If the centromere is included in the inverted segment, it is
called pericentric inversion. If the centromere is not part
The Genetic Material Must Exhibit
Allow variation by mutation.
Until 1944, Observation Favored
Protein as the Genetic Material
1. The genetic material is physically transm
Transposable elements (transposons) can
move within the genome and can insert
themselves into various positions within
and between chromosomes.
Staggered cuts in the target DNA
of DNA strands
allows each strand to
serve as a template
for synthesis of the
Three possible modes of DNA replication
1. Beadle and Tatum showed that nutritional
mutations in the bread mold Neurospora
caused the loss of an enzymatic activity that
catalyzes an essential reaction in wild-type
2. Based on their studies, Beadle and T
Gene regulation can occur at several levels
A generalized view of prokaryotic gene
Descriptions of gene regulation
1. Genes may be constitutive, inducible, or repressible.
2. Regulation may be under positive control or
The trp operon is a repressible
1. The enzymes (5 structural genes) for
tryptophan production form an operon.
2. In the presence of tryptophan, the operon
3. Tryptophan functions as a corepressor,
which is required for the repressor t