a not the result of and never affected by human intervention
b required for the proper biological functioning and survival of some living organism
c best for some entity according to some set of values
d compatible with the principles of science tha
(1) Commonly used words do not catch our attention because (2) we are so accustomed to
hearing them that we scarcely notice they are there. Therefore, (3) effective writing uses a richly
Assuming that a word's catching our attention mea
Which of the following best describes this passage?
Statement (1) supports statement (2); statement (2) supports statement (3); statement (3)
a. supports statement (4).
b. Statement (1) is background. Statements (2) and (3) linked support statement (4).
2009 Allan Ludman and Stephen Marshak
W.W. Norton & Company
USING IGNEOUS ROCKS TO INTERPRET EARTH HISTORY
To become familiar with igneous textures and mineral assemblages;
To learn to use texture and mineral content to interpret the
since the rock formed and if a volcano had been involved it has long since been eroded away. If
the rock was intrusive, kilometers of overlying rock would have been removed to expose it at the
surface. How can you determine which of these possibilities is
EXERCISE 5.6: INTERPRETING IGNEOUS COOLING HISTORIES FROM TEXTURES
Examine the igneous rocks provided by your instructor. Apply what you have learned about the
origins of igneous textures to fill in the cooling history column in the igneous study sheets a
important factor controlling grain size in an igneous rock. The slower a magma cools, the more
time ions have to migrate to crystal seeds; the faster it cools, the less time there is and the smaller
the grains will be. Another factor is the viscosity of t
tephra (the Icelandic term). Pyroclastic debris includes tiny ash particles (Figure 5.6a), larger
blocks or bombs erupted as liquid and cooled as fine-grained crystalline rock (5.6c), crystals
formed in the magma before eruption (5.6a), and pieces of rock
Small groundmass grains
Coarse groundmass grains
c)Dark-colored rock with fine-grained groundmass
and larger plagioclase feldspar phenocrysts
d)Light-colored rock with coarse-grained groundmass
and even larger potassic feldspar pheno
The name of an igneous rock is based on its mineral content and texture (Figure 5.7).
Each of the four igneous rock groups is shown by a column, each of which has coarse, fine,
porphyritic, glassy, porous, and fragmental varieties. Rocks in a column may h
5.5.1 Why and Where Do Rocks and Minerals Melt?
Iron in a blast furnace melts when enough heat is added to break bonds between
atoms and some magmas form the same way in continental lithosphere. The continental
crust thickens drastically in continent-cont
Yellowstone National Park, Wyominga continental hotspot: 2.2 million years ago,
the northwestern corner of Wyoming exploded in a violent eruption that spread immense quantities
of ash across the landscape. The sudden removal of magma caused the ground su
Table 5.2 General tectonic associations of igneous rock types
Andesite, rhyolite, basalt (and intrusive equivalents)
Peridotite as thrust slivers
Volcanic island arcs
Magmatic differentiation (also called fractional crystallization): Early-formed
minerals may separate from a magma, usually by sinking because, they are denser than
the liquid. If early-crystallized olivine sinks to the bottom of the magma, it can no long
b. Statement (2) supports statement (1).
c. The passage presents no argument, but an explanation.
(1) The efforts of the United States to build democracies in Germany and Japan after World
War II were highly successful. Therefore, (2) American efforts to
The argument from (1) to (2) overall is/is not is not cogent.
(1) Insects provide a concentrated source of protein and (2) in many poor countries people have
insufficient protein in their diets. So (3) those [in poor countries] who use insects as a foo
b a fallacy of relevance
c appeal to desire
d appeal to ignorance
Whales are huge creatures that have been in the oceans for millennia and are now threatened by
boat traffic, hunting practices, and pollution caused by humans. Who are we puny huma
For background on this passage, see Govier, p. 200.
"The scale and speed at which the interconnected forms of electronic communication known
variously as the Net, the Internet, the Worlde Wide Web or cyberspace have entered ordinarily
life in almost al
d The passage is an example of the appeal to fear fallacy, since it seeks to maniputlate the
. hearer into changing his behavior with the daughter by threatening him with various
consequences, but presents no factual information which would constitute a l
members of the aboriginal community were added. A special legislative committee reviewed the
appointment of a Chair and arranged for senior staff and researchers to guide the proceedings
and assist the members."
True or false, this passage presents an arg
NAME OF ROCK
COOLING HISTORY; SOURCE OF
MAGMA; TECTONIC SETTING
CHAPTER 6 SECTION 3 ASSIGNMENT
Background: An advertisement shows two attractive-looking women wearing dresses with polka
dots. The text is "R
a We have no definite criteria for deciding whether something is a problem.
b "Soccer in Kenya" could mean "soccer games played within Kenya" or "Kenyan soccer
c "President" could mean "president of Kenya" or "president of the Kenyan soccer
a Just how cloudy a day has to be to be a cloudy day or just how depressing the atomsphere
. must be to be depressing is not clear.
b The word "depressing" can mean either physically pushing something down or emotionally
c Although "cloudy"
The passage involves ambiguity because
a "Independent thinking" ordinarily means not accepting everything but questioning when
. there is good reason to question, but in the passage it is taken to mean not accepting
anything and starting from sc
d Analyzing the meaning of all the expressions in the passage is totally straightforward.
CHAPTER 4 SECTION 2
The Sibling Rivalry Case
(1) People who have a brother or sister are in a different family situation from those who do not
a. Premises (1), (2), (3), and (4) all linked together support the conclusion (5).
b. Premises (1), (2), (3), and (4) convergently support the conclsuion (5).
c. Premise (1) supports premise (2). (2) supports (3). (3) supports (4). (4) supports (5).
Premises (1), (2), (3), (4) linked are/are not are relevant to the conclusion (5).
The premises presenting three positive instances do/do not do not constitute sufficient evidence,
i.e. grounds adequate for the conclusion.
The argument overall is/is not i