PROBLEM 12.1
KNOWN: Rate at which radiation is intercepted by each of three surfaces (see (Example 12.1). FIND: Irradiation, G[W/m ], at each of the three surfaces. SCHEMATIC:
2
ANALYSIS: The irradiation at a surface is the rate at which radiation is inci
PROBLEM 5.1 KNOWN: Electrical heater attached to backside of plate while front surface is exposed to convection process (T,h); initially plate is at a uniform temperature of the ambient air and suddenly heater power is switched on providing a constant q .
PROBLEM 11.1
KNOWN: Initial overall heat transfer coefficient of a fire-tube boiler. Fouling factors following one year's application. FIND: Whether cleaning should be scheduled. SCHEMATIC:
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible tube wall conduction resistance, (2)
PROBLEM 6.1 KNOWN: Variation of hx with x for laminar flow over a flat plate. FIND: Ratio of average coefficient, h x , to local coefficient, hx, at x. SCHEMATIC:
ANALYSIS: The average value of hx between 0 and x is hx = hx hx Hence, 1 x C x h x dx = x -1
PROBLEM 2.1
KNOWN: Steady-state, one-dimensional heat conduction through an axisymmetric shape. FIND: Sketch temperature distribution and explain shape of curve. SCHEMATIC:
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, one-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties
PROBLEM 1.41
KNOWN: Hot plate-type wafer thermal processing tool based upon heat transfer modes by conduction through gas within the gap and by radiation exchange across gap. FIND: (a) Radiative and conduction heat fluxes across gap for specified hot plat
PROBLEM 1.1 KNOWN: Heat rate, q, through one-dimensional wall of area A, thickness L, thermal
conductivity k and inner temperature, T1. FIND: The outer temperature of the wall, T2. SCHEMATIC:
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction,
PROBLEM 4.1
KNOWN: Method of separation of variables for two-dimensional, steady-state conduction.
FIND: Show that negative or zero values of 2, the separation constant, result in solutions which
cannot satisfy the boundary conditions.
SCHEMATIC:
ASSUMPTI
1. Calculate the basis of the image 1 1 2 0 A= 1 0 2 1 and state its rank.
and kernal of the matrix 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 3 0
(a) Begin by either noticing the relations v1 + v2 = v4 , v3 = 0, (where vk is the kth column of A) or by reducing A to rref(A), at
PROBLEM 14.1
KNOWN: Mixture of O2 and N2 with partial pressures in the ratio 0.21 to 0.79. FIND: Mass fraction of each species in the mixture. SCHEMATIC:
pO2 p N2
MO M
=
0.21 0.79
2
= 32 kg/kmol
N2 = 28 kg/kmol
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Perfect gas behavior. ANALY
PROBLEM 13.1
KNOWN: Various geometric shapes involving two areas A1 and A2. FIND: Shape factors, F12 and F21, for each configuration. ASSUMPTIONS: Surfaces are diffuse. ANALYSIS: The analysis is not to make use of tables or charts. The approach involves u