Dynamics of the Contest
Candidates who begin the election year as leaders in the public opinion polls frequently
go on to win nomination.
o This pattern prevailed from 1936 through 1968, was interrupted in four Democratic
contests between 1972 and 1992,
The National Convention and Nominating Ticket
The National Convention
No part of the selection process has undergone more dramatic change than the nominating conventions.
Long the province of party leaders, todays conventions are largely media extravaga
Rules and Requirements of Running for Election
The formal rules of qualifications
are minimal and have been remarkably stable over time.
three requirements set forth in Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution.
1) One must be a natural-born citizen,
Reasons for Conflict in the Presidential Congressional Relationship
The Separation of Powers
Essentially, the President lacks complete control of his own branch.
Congress has control of most of the Executive Branchs departments
Presidents Formal and Informal Powers with Congress
Messages to Congress and Agenda Setting
State of the Union
Sets the national agenda
Outlines the presidents priorities for Congress
About of the significant bills that are passed by Congress are
Personal Characteristics of Candidates
Although millions meet the formal requirements for president, far fewer meet the
criteria that have guided past choices.
Most constraining have been the limits imposed by social conventions on gender and
National Parties and Selection Process
National Party Conventions
What developed was the party nominating convention, an assembly made truly
national by including delegates from all the states.
Influence over selection of the party nominee therefore shi
Media Influence and Campaign Consultants
For most of us, the combination of media coverage and media advertising is the
campaign; few voters see the candidates in person or involve themselves directly in
campaign events, wrote Marjorie Randon Hershey.
Financing Nomination Campaigns
It is essential that candidates for the nomination raise funds early.
They can qualify to receive federal funds
o match individual contributions of $250 or less if they can raise $100,000 in individual
bears little resemblance to what the Founders outlined in the Constitution.
Most of the changes have been extraconstitutional
o evolution of political parties, media practices, and citizen expectations rather than
The Nomination Campaign
The nomination campaign is a winnowing process in which each of the two major
parties eliminates from the pool of potential candidates
As political scientist Austin Ranney pointed out more than thirty years ago, the