Introduction to Aromaticity
Chemists of the early nineteenth century were puzzled by the structure of benzene an
unknown liquid with a pleasant aroma that was isolated from oil gas used to illuminate
street lamps. Michael Faraday an
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
The NMR Spectrum serves as a great resource in determining the structure of an organic
compound by revealing the hydrogen and carbon skeleton. Historically, NMR was
initially used to study the n
The 13C NMR is generated in the same fundamental was as proton NMR spectrum.
Only 1.1 % of naturally occurring carbon is 13C and actually an advantage because
of less coupling.
Requirement for NMR: Spin quantum # (I) 0 Meaning must be an odd numb
Introduction and Review
1) A Brief Introduction (source: Lecture Supplement: Introduction and Review, pg 1)
a) Organic Chemistry-focuses on carbon containing molecules
b) Special Properties of Carbon:
Able to form stable chains and rings
Basis of life (
A brief history
Christian Huygens discovered plane-polarized light in the late 17th century.
In 1815, Jean Baptiste Biot found that certain natural organic compounds, both liquids
and solutions, rotate plane-polarized light.
Carl Wilhelm S
What Is Resonance?
There are many occasions in which two or more valid Lewis structures are used to
illustrate a compounds structure. Even though these Lewis structures differ in the
placement of their electrons, they all represent the same
Key topics from CH 231
Chapter 1: Bonding and shapes of molecules
o Hybridization and molecular shapes (VSEPR)
Chapter 2: Alkanes
o Basic rules of nomenclature
o Conformational analysis of alkanes (Newman projections, conformers)