what is systemic gas exchange?
unloading of O2 and loading of CO2 at the systemic capillaries (tissues)
what does carbonic anhydrase do?
in RBC catalyzes
what is a chloride shift?
-keeps reaction proceeding, exchanges HCO3- for Cl-H+ binds to hemoglobin (
what do NK cells do?
destroy bacteria and infected host cells
what do B lymphocytes produce?
what do the plasma cells that B lymphocytes produce do?
secrete antibodies against foreign substances (antigens)
what do macrophages form from?
what is pressure difference?
allows flow of air in and out of lungs due to air pressure in the lungs and outside the body
inspiration= high outside-> low inside lungs
expiration= high inside lungs-> low outside
ALWAYS TRAVELS HIGH TO LOW
what is the diaph
mechanisms of action of complement proteins
what does inflammation in the complement system do?
C3 stimulates mast cells and basophils to secrete histamine and other inflammatory chemicals
Where do female germ cells arise from?
the yolk sac
What is atresia?
the degeneration of germ cells
What hormone Stimulates vaginal metaplasia?
What hormone Stimulates growth of ovaries and
secondary sex organs?
What hormone primarily
5 stages of the digestive process
movement in which stationary ringlike constrictions appear in several places along the intestine. Purpose
of segmentation is to mix and chur
the fluid in the capsular space
-similar to blood plasma except that it has almost no protein
why is the glomerous more efficient at filtration?
Filtration membrane w/large
High blood pressure within
glomerulus (60mmHg vs.
Saliva is a
-hypotonic solution of 97 to 99.5 water
Saliva contains these solutes:
-salivary amylase- enzyme begins starch digestion in mouth
-lingual lipase- enzyme activated by stomach acid and digests fat after the food is digested
-mucus- binds and lu
1. Hyrdochloric acid functions
Breaks up connective tissues and plant cell walls
Helps liquefy food to form
ferric ions (Fe
absorbed and used for hemoglo
what are memory T (Tm) cells?
-descend from the cytotoxic T cells
-responsible for memory in cellular immunity
what are the 3 stages for both cellular and humoral
1) recognition (recognize)
2) attack (react)
3) memory (remember)
what are the ste
what are the functions of HCl?
1.Activates pepsin and lingual lipase
2.Breaks up connective tissues and plant cell walls
Helps liquefy food to form chyme
3.Converts ingested ferric ions (Fe3+) to ferrous
Fe2+ absorbed and used for hemoglobin