mediates articulation and resonance of the vocal tone
lips, teeth, tongue, velum, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines
movement for speech production
innervation of muscles and mucosa asso
Unpaired cartilages of the larynx
thyroid, epiglottis, cricoid
What layer of the thyroarytenoids is responsible for the muscosal wave that can be viewed when
the vocal folds vibrate?
this muscles adducts the vocal folds
LCA (lateral cr
by CRANIAL NERVES (head/neck) at the brainstem and SPINAL NERVES (rest of the body) at
the spinal cord
How is the CNS connected to the PNS?
what are the 5 sections of the vertebral column?
-detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
-sends nervous impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm to increase
breathing rate and the volume of the lungs during inhalation
primary muscle of inspiration
Central hearing loss
related to damage to the CNS
what is conductive hearing loss?
involves a dysfunction in the outer or middle ear
what is sensorineural hearing loss?
involves damage to the inner ear
The frequency range at which the auditory system is m
the are the 3 unpaired cartilages of the larynx?
what are the three paired cartilages of the larynx?
this bone is suspended by the stylohyoid ligaments from the styloid processes of the tempora
prominent groove in the cerebral cortex that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
most rostral angle of the brain stem
located in the frontal lobe and assists motor speech
the "little brain" attac
What does the hyoid bone provide connections for?
Mandible, tongue, thorax, and larynx
Thyrohyoid and Sternothyroid
Suprahyoidal supplemental muscles (5)
Anterior and posterior bellies of digastric muscles
structure of the vertebral column
corpus is anterior; spinous process is posterior
spinal cord runs through the vertebral foramen
vertebrae bound by longitudinal ligaments and accessory ligaments
5 regions of the vertebrae
what are the 8 bones of the cranium?
(1) ethmoid (2) sphenoid (3) frontal (4) occipital (5) parietals (6) temporals
what are the two paired bones of the cranium?
the parietals and the temporals
What are the 14 facial bones?
(1) Mandible (2) Vomer (3) Maxi
Initial stimulus for depolarization is either:
an anatomically specialized junction between 2 neurons or between a neuron and the muscle
fibers it innervates
produces either excitatory (EPSP) or inhibitory (IPSB) potential on the