What is carbohydrate?
Enantiomer, chiral carbon, Fischer projection
Properties of monosaccharides
Cyclic form (Haworth structure)
Proteins that act as catalysts for chemical
reactions in living organisms.
speed up the rate of chemical reactions
not changed by the reaction
maybe used again and again.
General characteristics of enzymes
Catalytic Efficiency: enormo
v Biomolecules that carry and transfer genetic
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid); found
mainly in the nuclei of cells.
RNA (RiboNucleic Acid): found mainly in
the cytoplasm of cells.
Structure of nucleic acids
v DNA a
Digestion & Absorption of
v Digestion: the process of breaking down
food into molecules small enough to be
absorbed from the digestive tract into the
blood or lymph.
o Polysaccharides & disaccharides
Nucleic Acids & Protein
(Fig. 11.16 on p. 316)
v Central dogma of molecular biology:
The sequence of nucleotides in DNA (genetic
information) direct the synthesis of mRNA
(transcription; RNA synthesis)
The sequence of nucleotides in mRNA dire
Most amino acid degradation takes place in the liver.
The exception is for Branched Chain Amino Acids (leucine,
isoleucine, and valine). They are mainly used and degraded
When BCAAs are catabolized in muscle, NH4+
needs to be
(Overview & B vitamins)
Macronutrient: a substance needed by the body in
relatively large amounts
CHO, PRO, and FAT
Micronutrient: a substance needed by the body only
in small amounts.
Vitamins and minerals
Vitamins: organic micronutrient
Dietary minerals: inorganic micronutrients
Major mineral: mineral present in the human body in
quantities > 5g
Trace mineral: mineral present in the human body in
quantities < 5g
The most abundant mineral in
A group of compounds that possess the biological
activity of retinol.
retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, retinyl esters
Vitamin A are mainly derived from:
animal foods (liver, milk, eggs, fi
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) reactions
v Later in the semester, we will learn how glucose and
fatty acids are oxidized for fuel:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 > 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
CH3(CH2)16COOH + 26 O2 > 18 CO2 + 18
The chemical reactions we will see in the
1. What is molecule? What is atom? Understand the
difference and relation between them.
2. Describe the structure of an atom. Understand why an
atom has no net charge.
3. Understand concept of valence e
Water makes up about 70% of bodys
It acts to lubricate organs.
It transports nutrients throughout the body.
It helps cleanse the body by taking waste
products out of the system.
It also helps our body to maintain a
May be classied based on the number of carbons they contain.
Contain an aldehyde or a keto group, so they can also be
classied as aldoses and ketoses.
(Fig 7.1 on p. 196)
Physical properties of
Study Guide for Exam 2
What are enzymes?
Know how common names of enzymes are derived.
What chemical reaction/process does kinase and phosphatase catalyze, respectively?
What are apoenzyme, holoenzyme, enzyme cofacto
Metabolism & Energy
Metabolism = the sum of all reactions
occurring in the body.
Metabolic pathway = an orderly, wellregulated sequence of consecutive chemical
reactions that convert a starting material into a
Metabolic pathways can be either a
Lipid Metabolism 3
The operation of TCA cycle depends on enough glucose to produce
enough pyruvate, which is then converted to adequate oxaloacetate.
Under normal conditions, most of the acetyl CoA produced by fatty
acid oxidation is processed through the
Triglycerides stored in adipocytes (fat cells).
During fasting, glycogen is broken down to supply glucose for
energy. However, glycogen are depleted quickly.
During strenuous exercise, glycogen are depleted within
In the fed/absorptive state: fat breakdown
In the early fasting state (3-18 hrs after meal ingestion):
(enough) glucose is produced from liver glycogenolysis &
gluconeogenesis; body starts to break down fat for energy to
conserve glycogen and glucose for
(folate, B12 and vitamin C)
Food sources: leafy greens, citrus fruits, and dried
Many other foods are enriched or fortified with folic
acid. Since 1996, grain products in the United States
have been enriched with folic acid.
Fluids, Electrolytes & Acidbase Balance
A balance in the total
Normal and stable
distribution in the bodys
(Table 15.3 on p. 420)
Regulation of water intake
Water intake is regulated in part by
Cell reproduction and differentiation
Cell reproduction: the "mother cell divides
to produce two "daughter cells; exact
replicas; genetic information passed
unchanged from one generation to the next