CH101.001 (Blackstock, 808) Exam 1
February 4, 2008
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Part 1. Multiple choice questions (3 pts each, 75 pts). Enter answers on the scantron sheet.
1. Which of the following is not an SI base unit?
Group IV Elements
Physical Properties of Group IV Elements
-Introduction to Group IV elements
1) Group IV elements are p-block elements with a characteristic outer shell
configuration of nsnp.
2) Group IV elements exist in two different oxidation states,
Introduction to Transition Elements
Transition and d-block elements
A transition element is one which forms one or more stable ions with incompletely
A d-block element is one which has electrons filling the d-orbitals.
Introduction to Phenols
What are phenols?
1) Phenols are benzene compounds which have an -OH group
attached directly to it.
2) In a phenol molecule, one of the lone pairs on the oxygen overlaps with
delocalised electron system to give a structure like thi
Intrduction to Aromatic Compounds
Aliphatic and aromatic compounds
1) i. Aliphatic compounds are organic compounds that have carbon atoms
together in straight chains, branched chains or non-aromatic
rings. ii. Aromatic compounds are organic compoun
Reactions of Phenols
Reaction with sodium metal, Na
1) Reagent : Sodium metal, Na
Condition : Room temperature
Product : Alkoxides and hydrogen gas
Like alcohols, phenol will react with a reactive metal such as sodium to give
phenoxide and hydrogen gas.
Reactions of Benzene and Alkylbenzene
Reactivity of benzene
Unlike alkenes, benzene is resistant to addition reactions. This is because it
the delocalised electron system and thus losing its stability.
Instead, benzene undergoes substitu
What Is Resonance?
There are many occasions in which two or more valid Lewis structures are used to
illustrate a compounds structure. Even though these Lewis structures differ in the
placement of their electrons, they all represent the same
A brief history
Christian Huygens discovered plane-polarized light in the late 17th century.
In 1815, Jean Baptiste Biot found that certain natural organic compounds, both liquids
and solutions, rotate plane-polarized light.
Carl Wilhelm S
Introduction and Review
1) A Brief Introduction (source: Lecture Supplement: Introduction and Review, pg 1)
a) Organic Chemistry-focuses on carbon containing molecules
b) Special Properties of Carbon:
Able to form stable chains and rings
Basis of life (
The 13C NMR is generated in the same fundamental was as proton NMR spectrum.
Only 1.1 % of naturally occurring carbon is 13C and actually an advantage because
of less coupling.
Requirement for NMR: Spin quantum # (I) 0 Meaning must be an odd numb
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
The NMR Spectrum serves as a great resource in determining the structure of an organic
compound by revealing the hydrogen and carbon skeleton. Historically, NMR was
initially used to study the n
Introduction to Aromaticity
Chemists of the early nineteenth century were puzzled by the structure of benzene an
unknown liquid with a pleasant aroma that was isolated from oil gas used to illuminate
street lamps. Michael Faraday an
CHAPTER 10: INTRO TO
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Atomic Mass and Mass Spectrometry
THE ATOMIC MASS
Many elements have multiple, stable isotopes.
The ratio of different isotopes within a sample is constant.
I.e. Chlorine (Cl)
o Chlorine has 2 common isotopes (35Cl and 37Cl).
We calculate the average of t
Ch.1: Atoms and Elements
STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM
Two main parts:
o Electrons (e-)
o Live in the nucleus
o Has a mass of 1.67262x10-27 kg (1 amu)
o Has a charge of 1+
o Live in the nucleus
o Mass = 1 amu
o No Char
EIGHT (8) VALENCE ELECTRONS
Atoms with full valence shells are very unreactive.
All noble gases (except He) have 8 valence electrons.
METALS VS NONMETALS
Metals tend to loose electrons during a chemical reaction.
o Conduct Energy
1. THE STRUCTURE OF A GAS
A. Gasses are composed of particles that are flying around very fast in their
They travel in a straight liner until they encounter another particle or a surface.
2. GASES PUSHING
A. Gas molecules are c
1. YOU CANT SPELL STATE FUNCTIONS W/O FUN
A. In thermodynamics, a state function is a property that depends only on the current
state of the system.
Its not how you get there, only where you are.
2. STATE FUNCTIONS
A. The energy of a system
Chemical Changes and Chemical Equations
Changes in Matter
Physical changes are changes that alter the state or appearance of the
matter without altering the composition
o i.e. evaporation, freezing, melting, sublimation (solidgas),
Circulation & Gas Exchange
How Do We Move and Exchange Materials Throughout the Body?
Circulation: facilitating exchanges with the environment
Respiration: facilitating gas exchange across specialized surfaces
Hemoglobin: protein molecule in red blood cel
The electron configuration of the d block elements has trends that are
different from the main group elements.
o The first row (4 and 3d orbits are very close in energy)
In a multi-electron system, electrons are
Chapter 4: The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations
Order elements by atomic mass
Saw a repeating patter of properties
Periodic Law: when the elements are arranged in order of increasing
atomic mass, certain sets of properties
Mon Apr 18, 2016
1. MEASURING E, CALORIMETRY AT CONSTANT VOLUME
A. Because E = q + w, we can determine E by measuring q and w
E = q + w
E = q - PV
B. In practice, it is not possible to observe the temperature changes of the
Ch. 1: Classifying Matter
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.
Matter comes in three different states.
Atoms/molecules are tightly packed
Does not flow
Atom/molecules are tightly packe
THE IDEAL GAS LAW
1. STANDARD CONDITIONS
A. Because the volume of a gas varies with pressure and temperature. Chemists have
agreed on a set of conditions to report our measurements so that comparison
2. BOYLE, CHARLES, AND AVOGARDO
3. IDEAL GAS LAW
When ionic compounds dissolve in water, the anions and cations are
separated from each other. This is called dissociated.
When compounds containing polyatomic ions dissociate, the polyatomic
group stays together as one ion.
Weak v. Strong