16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #12 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
A house has a composite wall of wood, fiberglass insulation, and plaster board, as
indicated in the sketch on the board. On a cold winter day the convection heat transfer
coefficients are ho=60 W/m

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #11 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
Methane gas (CH4) and oxygen enter a combustion chamber at standard conditions. The
mass flow rate of the methane is 1 kg/s and the oxygen is 100 kg/s. Determine:
(a) The adiabatic flame temperatur

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #10 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
Consider an ideal dual-loop heat-powered refrigeration cycle using ammonia as the
working fluid, as shown on the board. Saturated vapor at 40oC leaves the boiler and
expands in the turbine to the c

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #9 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
A power plant operates on a Rankine cycle with steam as the working fluid. Both the
pump and the turbine are ideal. Assume that the working fluid leaves the condenser as
a saturated liquid at 1 bar.

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #8 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
Please refer to the figure drawn on the board.
A power plant operates on a Brayton Cycle with air as the working fluid. The Brayton
cycle consists of a compressor, a combustor, and two turbines (t

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #7 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
An ideal dual combustion cycle, or dual cycle, consists of the following 5 processes (plus
the intake and exhaust strokes):
1 => 2 Adiabatic and reversible compression
2 => 3 Constant volume heat ad

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #6 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
Consider the gas turbine engine shown schematically on the board. The system consists
of an isothermal and reversible compressor, a burner, and two adiabatic and irreversible
turbines. You are giv

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #5 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
Consider the turbine-exhaust nozzle combination of a jet engine shown schematically on
the board. You are given the following system specifications:
Turbine power output= 40 MW
Mass flow= 75 kg/s

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #4 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
The Concorde is flying at its cruising altitude of 60,000 ft when suddenly one of the
cockpit windows cracks and fails, leaving a hole of 5 cm diameter. How much time do
the pilots have to put on th

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #3 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
The turbine section of a Brayton cycle gas turbine receives the hot compressed air at 10 bar, 1200
K expands it to 1 bar and develops a gross power output of 10 MW. Air enters the compressor
section

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #2 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
The core of a certain gas turbine system, as drawn on the board, has a compressor, a
combustor, and a turbine. You are given the following system specifications:
Tta= 300 K (compressor inlet total

16.050 Thermal Energy
Recitation #1 Fall 2002
Problem 1:
A piston/cylinder arrangement contains 1 kg of air. The piston is spring loaded and
initially rests on some stops (with the spring uncompressed). A pressure of 300 kPa will
just float the piston (i.

Index
absorptance HT-54
absorption HT-57
adiabatic 0-5, 0-9
adiabatic efficiency see efficiency
adiabatic flame temperature 2C-7
Biot number HT-30, HT-36
black body HT-56, HT-63 see also radiation
blade see turbine blade
Brayton cycle 1A-5, 1C-5, 2A-5
eff

PART 3 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING HEAT TRANSFER
Introduction to Engineering Heat Transfer
These notes provide an introduction to engineering heat transfer. Heat transfer processes set limits to the performance of aerospace components and systems and the

Part 2.C: Introduction to Thermochemistry
[SB&VW-14.1-14.6]
Until now, we have specified the heat given to the devices analyzed, and not concerned
ourselves with how this heat might be produced. In this section, we examine the issue of how we
obtain the h

2.B Power Cycles with Two-Phase Media (Vapor Power Cycles)
[SB&VW Chapter 3, Chapter 11, Sections 11.1 to 11.7]
In this section, we examine cycles that use two-phase media as the working fluid. These
can be combined with gas turbine cycles to provide comb

PART 2
POWER AND PROPULSION CYCLES
PART 2 POWER AND PROPULSION CYCLES
2A Gas Power and Propulsion Cycles
[SB&VW - 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14]
In this section we analyze several gas cycles used in practical applications for propulsion
an

1.D: Interpretation of Entropy on the Microscopic Scale - The Connection between
Randomness and Entropy
1.D.1 Entropy Change in Mixing of Two Ideal Gases
Consider an insulated rigid container of gas separated into two halves by a heat conducting
partition

1.C Applications of the Second Law
[VN-Chapter 6; VWB&S-8.1, 8.2, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 9.6]
1.C.1 Limitations on the Work that Can be Supplied by a Heat Engine
The second law enables us to make powerful and general statements
concerning the maximum work th

1.B: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
[IAW 42-50; VN Chapter 5; VWB&S-6.3, 6.4, Chapter 7]
1.B.1 Concept and Statements of the Second Law (Why do we need a second law?)
The unrestrained expansion, or the temperature equilibration of the two bricks, are fa

PART 1
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
PART 1 - THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
1.A. Background to the Second Law of Thermodynamics
[IAW 23-31 (see IAW for detailed VWB&S references); VN Chapters 2, 3, 4]
1.A.1 Some Properties of Engineering Cycles; Wor

PART 0
PRELUDE: REVIEW OF "UNIFIED ENGINEERING
THERMODYNAMICS"
PART 0 - PRELUDE: REVIEW OF UNIFIED ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
[IAW pp 2-22, 32-41 (see IAW for detailed SB&VW references); VN Chapter 1]
0.1 What its All About
The focus of thermodynamics in

MIT Course 16
Fall 2002
Thermal Energy
16.050
Prof. Z. S. Spakovszky
Notes by E.M. Greitzer
Z. S. Spakovszky
Table of Contents
PART 0 - PRELUDE: REVIEW OF UNIFIED ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
0.1 What it's all about
0.2 Definitions and fundamentals ideas of

16.050 Thermal Energy
Quiz #2 Fall 2002
Date: 11/22/02
Do all three problems. All problems count the same.
1. The power plant shown in the figure below combines a Brayton cycle and a Rankine
cycle. All components are ideal, kinetic energy effects can be n

16.050 Thermal Energy
Quiz #1 Fall 2002
Do all three problems. All problems count the same.
1. A reversible cycle plots as a perfect circle on a T-S diagram with maximum and
minimum temperatures 600 K and 300 K and a maximum and minimum entropy of
600 k

16.050 Thermal Energy
Problem Set #8 Fall 2002
Time spent on problems:
Problem 1: Problem 2: Problem 3: Problem 4: Problem 5: Problem 6: Problem 7:
16.050 Thermal Energy
Problem Set #8 Fall 2002
Do all problems. Please use a separate sheet of paper for ea

16.050 Thermal Energy
Time spent on problems:
Problem 1:
Problem 2:
Problem 3:
Problem 4:
Problem 5:
Problem Set #7 Fall 2002
16.050 Thermal Energy
Problem Set #7 Fall 2002
Do all problems. Please use a separate sheet of paper for each problem.
1. A Carno