2 2.02
I NTRODUCTION TO
A PPLIED NUCLEAR
P HYSICS
Spring 2012
Prof. Paola Cappellaro
1
G OALS OF 22.02
I NTRODUCTION TO A PPLIED N UCLEAR P HYSICS
Learn the basic principles of nuclear and
radiation science
After taking this class, you will able to
study
2 2.02
INTRODUCTION TO
A PPLIED NUCLEAR
PHYSICS
Lecture 2
1
S EMIEMPIRICAL MASS FORMULA
M (Z, A) = Zm(1 H ) + N mn B (Z, A)/c2
With binding energy given by:
B (A, Z ) = av A as A2/3 ac Z (Z 1)A1/3
(A 2Z )2
+ ap A3/4
asym
A
Photo courtesy of cdw9 on Flick
M EASUREMENT i n
Q UANTUM M ECHANICS
1
Y OUNG DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT
Ref: A. Tonomura, J. Endo, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki and H. Ezawa
Am. J. of Phys. 57, 117 (1989)
Electrons are emitted one by one from the source in the electron microscope. They pass
thro
Neutron Interferometry
1
NIST Center for Neutron Research
Home to a 20 MW reactor that provides neutrons for scien>c
research
Dozens of instruments (most for Solid State applica>ons)
Some instruments for the study of Fundamen
Bound Problems in the real world
From the Schrdinger Equation in 3D to the angular momentum
1
Schrdinger Equation in 3D
We write the timeindependent Schrdinger equation
~
(x) = E (x)
r2 + V (x, y , z )
2m
2
in spherical coordinates
~
1@
2m r2 @ r
2
2@
T HE SHELL MODEL
22.02
Introduction To Applied Nuclear Physics
Spring 2012
A tomic Shell Model
Chemical properties show a periodicity
Periodic table of the elements
Add electrons into
shell structure
2
A tomic Radius
0.30
0.25
Radius @nmD
0.20
0.15
G AMMA DECAY
1
XKCD.COM
Courtesy of xkcd.com.
2
E LECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
eV
Energy
(eV)
meV
eV
keV
MeV
TeV
106
103
1
10 3
1 06
109
3
Public domain image (source: NASA)
D IPOLE RADIATION
Rate from Fermis Golden Rule + Density of states:
2
W=
h
~

22.02 Intro to Applied Nuclear Physics
MidTerm Exam
Thursday March 18, 2010
Problem 1:
Name: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Questions
40 points
1. What is an observable in quantum mechanics and by which mathematical object is represented?
2. H
22.02 Intro to Applied Nuclear Physics
MidTerm Exam
Thursday March 17, 2011
Problem 1:
Name: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Questions
24 points
These short questions require only short answers (but even for yes/no questions give a brief explan
22.02 Intro to Applied Nuclear Physics
MidTerm Exam
Solution
Problem 1:
Short Questions
24 points
These short questions require only short answers (but even for yes/no questions give a brief explanation)
a) In the SEMF, the volume term gives the most imp
22.02 Intro to Applied Nuclear Physics
MidTerm Exam
Wednesday, March 21 2012
Problem 1:
Name: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Questions
24 points
These short questions require only short answers (but even for yes/no questions give a brief expla
22.02 Intro to Applied Nuclear Physics
MidTerm Exam
Thursday March 18, 2010
Problem 1:
Short Questions
40 points
1. What is an observable in quantum mechanics and by which mathematical object is represented?
An observable in QM is any physical quantity
22.02 Intro to Applied Nuclear Physics
MidTerm Exam
Thursday March 17, 2011
Problem 1:
Solution
Short Questions
24 points
These short questions require only short answers (but even for yes/no questions give a brief explanation)
1) What information about