Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Resistive circuit analysis. Kirchhoffs Laws
Fundamentals of DC electric circuits.
A simple model that we can use as a starting point for discussing electronic circuits is
given on Figure 1.
i
Voltage
across
sourse
Vs
Source
Load
Resistance
RL internal to
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Using the Impedance Method
The impedance method allows us to completely eliminate the differential equation
approach for the determination of the response of circuits. In fact the impedance method
even eliminates the need for the derivation of the system
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Frequency response: Passive Filters
Lets consider again the RC filter shown on Figure 1
R
+
1
jC
Vs
Vc

Figure 1
When the output is taken across the capacitor the magnitude of the transfer function is
H ( ) =
By letting 0 =
1
1 + ( RC ) 2
(1.1)
1
the tr
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Sinusoidal Steady State Response:
Frequency domain representation
Impedance
Using the complex forcing function
Lets consider the RL circuit shown on Figure 1. The circuit is driven by the sinusoidal
source of the form vs (t ) = vo cos(t ) .
i(t)
R
+
vL(t)
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Capacitors and inductors
We continue with our analysis of linear circuits by introducing two new passive and
linear elements: the capacitor and the inductor.
All the methods developed so far for the analysis of linear resistive circuits are applicable
to
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Sinusoidal Steady State Response of Linear Circuits
The circuit shown on Figure 1 is driven by a sinusoidal voltage source vs(t) of the form
vs (t ) = vo cos(t )
i(t)
(1.1)
R
+
vR (t)
+
vc(t)
vs (t)
C

Figure 1. Series RC circuit driven by a sinusoidal f
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Dependent Sources:
Introduction and analysis of circuits containing dependent sources.
So far we have explored timeindependent (resistive) elements that are also linear. We
have seen that two terminal (one port) circuits can be modeled by simple circuits
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Applications of Dependent Sources:
Dependent sources provide a convenient means of:
1. converting between voltage and current
2. changing resistance
Since dependent sources often appear in the part of the circuit that we are using to make a
measurement, t
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Linear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits
So far we have explored timeindependent (resistive) elements that are also linear.
A timeindependent elements is one for which we can plot an i/v curve. The current is
only a
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
6.071/22.071: Introduction to Electronics, Signals and Measurement.
Class Introduction
Goals:
Describe course philosophy and go over administrative details
Define the goals and set the expectations for the course
Become familiar with laboratory infrastruc
Introduction to Electronics, Signals, and Measurement
E 2

Spring 2006
Signals and Systems:
Material for the classes on:
2/10/06
2/14/06
2/16/06
The goals of the following three classes are:
Define and explore various types of signals
Explore the concept of a system and define LTI systems
Explore time and frequency domain re