Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL)
Be able to list differences (clinical, morphological) between low- and high-grade lymphomas, to
describe with example how we use immunophenotyping to classify low-grade
lymphomas, and to distinguish between high grade lymphomas
Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Dyscrasias
Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells. It is one of a number of diseases under the
heading of plasma cell dyscrasias, which include:
Folate and B12 Deficiency Anemias
Megaloblastic anemias have as their primary defect a reduction in DNA synthesis, leading to
unbalanced cell growth in all rapidly proliferating cells. In the bone marrow, nuclearcytoplasmic asynchrony causes either cell d
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Iron distribution: 60% in Hb, 30% in ferritin and hemosiderin, 0.1% in transferrin.
Iron absorption: absorbed in the upper small intestine. Most iron is not bioavailable.
Iron transport: transported by HFE into mucosal cells where i
White Blood Cells
Leukocytes include neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
Granulocytes only include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. All of these phagocytose, but
neutrophils are the most efficient at phagocytosis and a
Consequences and Approaches to Anemia
Metabolic/Physiologic Responses to Anemia
Patients with iron deficiency anemia demonstrate pica, the ingestion of ice or other odd foods.
Pica is probably related to decreased activity of iron-requiring enzymes in the
Leukemia is divided into acute vs. chronic, and myeloid vs. lymphoid. The transforming event
in leukemia affects a progenitor cell.
Chronic leukemias generally consist of proliferation of mature elements that resemble normal
blood and marrow elem
Hemoglobinopathies are mutations of alpha or beta globin genes leading to variant globin
molecules or decreased globin production.
Hb-A is the normal adult hemoglobin (22). One heme in each globin (four total).
Sickle Cell Disease is a
Blood circulation prevents accumulation of clotting factors.
Endothelial cells have thrombomodulin (binds thrombin, activates Protein C) and tissue
plasminogen activator to promote fibrinolysis.
Antithrombin III inhibits serine proteases (IIa,
Four elements of hemostasis: vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, coagulation cascade
activation, and fibrin deposition.
Factor II = prothrombin (activated to IIa or thrombin)
Factor III = tissue factor
Serine proteases include XII, XI, X, I
Hemolytic Disorder = any condition in which RBC survival time is less than 120 days.
Hemolysis causes increased RBC production, so there will be increased reticulocytes. Marrow
can boost RBC production up to 8x. If production offsets hem
Reactive Lymphadenopathy and Hodgkin Lymphoma
In a normal lymph node, the follicles have B cells, the parafollicular zone has T cells, the sinuses
have histiocytes, and the medulla is full of plasma cells and lymphocytes.
Reactive Lymphadenopathy: This is
Hematopoietic stem cells are blood-forming cells that can self-renew and differentiate.
These stem cells are plastic and may be able to transdifferentiate into non-hematopoietic tissues.
Daughter cells progressively lose multi-lineage potent