16.50 Lecture 4
Subjects: Hyperbolic orbits. Interplanetary transfer.
(1) Hyperbolic orbits
p
, but now we have >1, so that the
1 + ! cos "
radius tends to infinity at the asymptotic angle ! " = # $ cos $1 (1 / % ).
The trajectory is still described by r

16.50 Lecture 7
Subject: Modeling of rocket nozzles; effects of nozzle area ratio.
In the last lecture we saw how the throat area of the nozzle controls the mass flow rate. Now
we will explore the effects of the shape of the nozzle downstream of the throa

16.50 Lecture 15
Subject: Ablative cooling
By ablation we mean the recession of a surface due to heating, usually by a hot gas.
It is the key process for
a)
b)
c)
d)
Re-entry heat shields
Solid propellant nozzles
Rocket case insulation
Fire-proofing skysc

16.50 Lecture 14
Subjects: Heat Transfer and Cooling
Because the combustion temperatures in most rocket engines are far beyond the
levels tolerable by most common structural metals, the walls of the combustion
chambers and nozzles must be cooled. The high

16.50 Lecture 8
Subjects: Types of Nozzles; Connection of flow to nozzle shape.
Types of Nozzles
The axisymmetric convergent-divergent "bell" nozzle that has been used as the example to
this point is the standard for rocket nozzles, for several reasons:
1

16.50 Lecture 10
Subjects: Models for rocket engines; Flow of reacting gases
Models for Rocket Engines
In Lecture 6 we described in general terms a set of models we might use to describe the
various features of rocket engines, making the point that no one

16.50 Lecture 13
Subject: Rocket casing design; Structural modeling
Thus far all our modeling has dealt with the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of
rockets. This is appropriate because it is these features that

16.50 Lecture 11
Subject: Reacting Gases (continued); Temperature dependence of specific heats.
Reacting gases (continued)
We were at the point in the last lecture of solving for the composition in the combustion
chamber.
If we set Tc and Pc, we can solve

16.50 Lecture 9
Subject: Solid Propellant Gas Generators; Stability; Grain designs
We have thus far discussed two models for the nozzle flow in rocket engines, the Channel
Flow Model and the Two Dimensional Isentropic Model. Now we will introduce a model

16.50 Lecture 12
Subject: Nozzle flow of reacting gases
In the last two lectures we discussed the phenomena that occur in the combustor, and how to
estimate the properties of the gas in the (near) stagnation state there. Suppose now that we
have determine

16.50 Lecture 5
Subjects: Non-Chemical rockets; Optimum exhaust velocity
1) Non-chemical rockets
A shared characteristic of all non-chemical propulsion systems is that the energy and
propellant mass are separate initially
Chemical
Chemical
Energy
mass
.
m

16.50 Lecture 3
Subjects: Orbital mechanics; Single force center
The most usual application of rocket engines is to propel vehicles under conditions where
the behavior of the vehicle is largely determined by the gravitational attractions of one or
more bo

16.50 Lecture 1
Subjects: Rocket Equation; Gravity Loss; Optimum Acceleration.
1) Rocket Equation
A rocket is a propulsive device that produces a thrust force F on a vehicle by ejecting
mass a high relative velocity c. This force is simply equal to the ra

16.50 Lecture 6
Subject: Modeling of Thermal Rocket Engines; Nozzle flow; Control of mass flow
Though conceptually simple, a rocket engine is in fact physically a very complex device and
difficult to represent quantitatively by mathematical models. But th

16.50 Lecture 2
Subjects: Rocket staging; Range of aircraft; Climb & Aceleration
1) Rocket Staging
The reason for staging is to avoid having to accelerate empty tanks. Assume for
simplicity only two stages; one does not want to stage either too early (and