Lecture 7 Notes
Subject: Modeling of rocket nozzles; effects of nozzle area ratio.
In the last lecture we saw how the throat area of the nozzle controls the mass flow rate. Now
we will explore the effects of the shape of the nozzle downstream of the throa

Lecture 2 Notes
Subjects: Rocket staging; Range of aircraft; Climb & Aceleration
1) Rocket Staging
The reason for staging is to avoid having to accelerate empty tanks. Assume for
simplicity only two stages; one does not want to stage either too early (and

Lecture 5 Notes
Subjects: Non-Chemical rockets; Optimum exhaust velocity
1) Non-chemical rockets
A shared characteristic of all non-chemical propulsion systems is that the energy and
propellant mass are separate initially
Chemical
.
mc
Chemical
Energy
mas

16.50 Lecture 4
Subjects: Hyperbolic orbits. Interplanetary transfer.
(1) Hyperbolic orbits
The trajectory is still described by r
, but now we have >1, so that
1 cos
the radius tends to infinity at the asymptotic angle cos 1 (1 / ).
p
The parameter p s

Lecture 6 Notes
Subject: Modeling of Thermal Rocket Engines; Nozzle flow; Control of mass flow
Though conceptually simple, a rocket engine is in fact physically a very complex device and
difficult to represent quantitatively by mathematical models. But th

Lecture 3 Notes
Subjects: Orbital mechanics; Single force center
The most usual application of rocket engines is to propel vehicles under conditions where
the behavior of the vehicle is largely determined by the gravitational attractions of one or
more bo

Lecture 9 Notes
Subject: Solid Propellant Gas Generators; Stability; Grain designs
We have thus far discussed two models for the nozzle flow in rocket engines, the Channel
Flow Model and the Two Dimensional Isentropic Model. Now we will introduce a model

Lecture 10 Notes
Subjects: Models for rocket engines; Flow of reacting gases
Models for Rocket Engines
In Lecture 6 we described in general terms a set of models we might use to describe the
various features of rocket engines, making the point that no one

Lecture 8 Notes
Subjects: Types of Nozzles; Connection of flow to nozzle shape.
Types of Nozzles
The axisymmetric convergent-divergent "bell" nozzle that has been used as the example to
this point is the standard for rocket nozzles, for several reasons:
1

Lecture 1 Notes
Subjects: Rocket Equation; Gravity Loss; Optimum Acceleration.
1) Rocket Equation
A rocket is a propulsive device that produces a thrust force F on a vehicle by ejecting
mass a high relative velocity c. This force is simply equal to the ra