Organization of the genome
genomes vary in size
smallest: bacterium Carsonella ruddii (160,000 base pairs, 182 genes)
largest: plant Paris japonica (1.5 * 10^11 base pairs) - 320 ft stretched out
human (3 * 10^9 base pairs, 20,000 genes) - 6.5 ft
12.4 What Is the Relationship between Genes and Chromosomes?
genes that are physically linked on the same chromosome
genes inherited together
law of independent assortment would apply only to loci on different chromosomes
12.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance?
each parent contributes equally to offspring
false assumption: hereditary determinants blend in offspring and they could not be
parental generation: plants providing and receiv
8.1 What Physical Principles Underlie Biological Energy Transformations?
energy = capacity for change
two basic types of energy:
potential energy: energy of state/position; store energy
stored in many forms (chemical bonds, gradient, electric charge etc.)
4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
transmission between generations
use of genetic info
intermediate - encoded in DNA specifies AA seq of proteins
non-reproductive actives: info flows
14.6 What Happens to Polypeptides after Translation?
site of polypeptide's function is usually far from its point of synthesis in cytoplasm
some are modified by addition of new chemical groups
signal seq in proteins direct them to their cellular destinati
12.2 How Do Alleles Interact?
there may be many alleles for a single character
alleles do not always show simple dominant-recessive relationships
a single allele may have multiple phenotypic effects
rare, stable, inherited changers in genetic ma
13.5 How Does the Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplify DNA?
PCR = polymerase chain reaction
dsDNA to act as template
2 short, artificially synthesized primers
DNA polymerase that can tolerate high temps
salts and buffer to mainta
18.1 What is Recombinant DNA?
restriction endonucleases: cuts DNA into fragments
DNA ligase: catalyzes joining of DNA fragments
joins Okazaki fragments during replication
scientists use restriction enzymes ad ligases to cut DNA and splice them in new
3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
appear as hydrates of carbon
carbon + water
linked carbon atoms are seen to be bonded with H and hydroxyl
source of stored energy
transport stored energy