2 Site investigationsEquation Chapter 2 Section 1
2.1
General requirements
A site investigation in one form or another is always required for any engineering or building structure. The extent
of work depends on the importance and foundation arrangement of
1
General introduction
1.1
Introduction
Foundation engineering is the engineering science that deals with design and construction of foundations for
structures, such as buildings, bridges and dams. It requires knowledge of factors such as:
1) The load tha
4 Design of spread foundations
To perform satisfactorily, shallow foundations must have two characteristics:
1) They have to be safe against overall shear failure in the soil that supports them, i.e. the ultimate limit state
bearing capacity should not be
5 Design of pile foundations
5.1
Load transfer mechanisms
Q (s 0)
The load transfer mechanism from a pile to the soil is complicated. To understand it, consider a pile of length L, as
shown in Fig. 5.1. The load on the pile is gradually increased
from zer
6 Stresses and forces caused by earth bodies
After the elastic considerations of the previous chapter, attention will be paid to a more realistic description of the
material soil. The aim is the calculation of the horizontal stresses (or lateral stresses)
3 Foundation design procedures
There are two basic design procedures:
the permissible stress method;
the limit state design method;
3.1 The permissible stress method
This is the older design method and is followed by the British Standard Code of Practice:
PROBLEM SET 8 - SOLUTIONS
Comments on Problem Set 8
PROBLEM 1:
- Not many people got a good explanation for part (a). The assumption of straight surface is a good one
because the difference between velocity heads over the crest and over the trough is smal
PROBLEM SET 7 - SOLUTIONS
Comments on Problem Set 7
PROBLEM 1:
- This time I have a comment on my own solution, because some of you did better than me on this problem.
I only calculated a lower limit of the relative roughness for which Mannings approximat
PROBLEM SET 9 - SOLUTIONS
Comments on Problem Set 9
PROBLEMS 1-3:
- A detail that many people got wrong is that the M1 curve tends asymptotically to a horizontal line.
Many groups draw the M1 with a final slope (dh/dx) larger than S0 (i.e., horizontal), w
PROBLEM SET 3 - SOLUTIONS
Comments on Problem Set 3
PROBLEM 1:
- Remember that we want the flownet to be formed by square cells. Many of your flownet cells in the
region next to the gate didnt look very square. This means that your streamlines are not rig
Comments about Problem Set 1
PROBLEM 1:
- There were many different answers to part (c). Some groups argued that the reason for
the unexpected ability of Asafa Powell to run on water was that Asafa and the lizard have
a different ratio of weight (W) to fe
Head
80
O
40
w
Pi
p
e
N
Ne
ien
cy
Ol
dP
ipe
60
Ef
fic
Head, ft Efficiency, %
Adapted from:
PUMP-PERFORMANCE GRAPH FOR PROBLEM 4
Figure E11.3 in Young, Donald F., Bruce R. Munson, and Theodore H. Okiishi.
A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. 2nd ed. Ne
PROBLEM SET 3 - SOLUTIONS
Comments on Problem Set 4
PROBLEM 1:
- Be careful with the directions of the other forces when you apply momentum conservation in a control
volume. Typically, you draw and calculate the forces exerted by the surroundings on the c
PROBLEM SET 2 - SOLUTIONS
Comments about Problem Set 2
PROBLEM 1:
- Please keep in mind what the meaning of line of action of a force is. When you calculate the resultant
pressure force, you impose it to cause the same total force (1), and to cause the sa
PROBLEM SET 5 - SOLUTIONS
Comments on Problem Set 5
PROBLEM 1:
- To solve part (a), you apply Bernoulli between the reservoir and the vena contracta location.
Thus, you calculate the velocity at vena contracta, VVC. The discharge is Q=VVCAVC, where
AVC=CV
Problem Set #7 Solution
Fall 2004
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Problem 7.1
Three strain gages measure the extensional strain in the three directions 0a, 0b
and 0c at the point 0. Using the relationship we derived in class
PQ = x cos2 + xy cos sin + y sin2
b
a
1.050 Solid Mechanics, Fall 2004
Problem Set#2 Solution
Problem 2.1
First, we need to nd the reaction forces at point A and B, we
get that
C
Fy = 0; R A + R B = P
L
2L
M A = 0; R B (2 L ) P ( + x p ) = 0
L
P
D
A
E
y
RB =
60o
x
RA =
P L xp
2 L
B
x
RA
P L +
Problem Set #4 Solution
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Fall 2004
Problem 4.1
An automobile tire normally requires internal pressure from 24-36 psi.
This pressure might be higher under certain situations. We will take an
internal pressure as 32 psi for this problem
Problem Set #10 Solution
Fall 2004
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Problem 10.1
0.571 in
A1
Let A1 and A2 be the cross-sectional areas of the ange
and web respectively. Then we can compute, with the dimensions give, the total area, the weight per unit length (given
1.050 Solid Mechanics, Fall 2004
Problem Set 9 Solution
Problem 9.1
10.086 in
10.244 in
w0 = 1000 lb/ft
A
B
C
L = 10 ft
RA
RB
SFD
Mb(max)
BMD
Figure 1.1
FY
RA
0; R A
RB 1000 10
0
RB
1000 10
RB
5000 lbs
2
M b(max)
5000 5 5000 2.5
12500 lbs - ft
RA
Mb y
I
x
Problem Set #8
Solution
Fall 2004
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Problem 8.1
A solid aluminum, circular shaft has length 0.35 m and diameter 6 mm. How much does one end rotate relative
to the other if a torque about the shaft axis of 10 N-m is applied?
GJ
We turn
Problem Set #5
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Fall 2004
(Due Friday, 15 October)
Problem 5.1
A closed can of soda is under pressure equivalent to that in an automobile tire. We
measured the wall thickness in lab on Thursday to be 0.0025 inches. Estimate the axial
Design Exercise 6
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Fall 2004
You are to design a new experiment for 1.105, one which will demonstrate the effect of an
axial load on the bending stiffness of a beam constrained as shown in the appendix. The proposed experimental set-u
Reflections: Design Exercise 2
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Fall 2004
Reections on Design Exercise #2, a truss design with cost considerations
We consider a series of simple trusses, all spanning the
length L, (L= 20ft.) with diagonals inclined at some angle
the
Reflections: Design Exercise 4
1.050 Solid Mechanics
Fall 2004
A hollow aluminum shaft, two meters long, must transmit a torque of 20 KNm. and
bear a compressive load of 100 KN. The total angle of twist over the full length of the
shaft is not to exceed 2
1.050 Solid Mechanics, Fall 2004
Problem Set#3 Solution
Problem 3.1
Figure 1.1 shows the sketch of a tree trunk with
distributed load w0 as the weight of the trunk +
leaf. In a more realistic form, you can assume that
the distributed load is not uniform w