The Logic Tutor responds:
1. A substitution instance of an argument form is an argument that results from
uniformly replacing the variables in that form with statements (or terms).
Your answer of `True' is correct!
2. The parts of a disjunction are disjun
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 3)
4.3 Exercises: Fallacies of Criticism
I. Ad hominem. The following arguments all employ an ad hominem scheme. Determine
whether they are fallacious.
1. Some Tea Party activists have objected to the Obama a
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 3)
1.2 Arguments
Arguments, as we have seen, are composed of propositions. In light of this, lets offer a more
exact definition of argument in logic:
An argument is two or more propositions, some of which (th
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 3)
2.1 Exercises
I. Determine whether the following passages are best interpreted as arguments or nonarguments. If theyre non-arguments, identify which kind of non-arguments they are
(explanation, illustratio
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
C HAPTER T WO: T YPES OF A RGUMENT
2.1 What arguments do
An argument is composed of propositions related to each other in a particular way: some of
them, the premise or premises, act as evidence for anothe
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (Version 3)
1.3 Why should you care about arguments?
It is simple. Here is an astounding fact: you make arguments whether youre aware of it or not.
How is this? Lets start with propositions. Recall that propositions a
4.4 Exercises: Fallacies of Insufficient Evidence
Consider the following examples of arguments. Distinguish between the good ones and the
bad ones.
Hasty Generalization
1. The insurance companys experts scoured police records across the country and found
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
C HAPTER F OUR: A RGUMENT FORMS, C RITICAL A NALYSIS, AND FALLACIES
4.1 Argument form and fallacy
Good arguments succeed at two things: (1) they have true premises and (2) the premises
logically imply the
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 3)
4.3 Questions of Relevance II
Recall that fallacies of relevance arise when ones reasons are not evidence for what one is
trying to prove. Since relevance is hard to judge, and easily confused, these falla
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
2.4 Exercises
The following are inductive arguments. (1) identify the type of inductive argument (cause,
analogy, authority, generalization), noting that some may involve more than one type or be
interpret
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 3)
5.4 Immediate Inferences on the Aristotelian and M odern Squares of Opposition
The Aristotelian Square of Opposition as it appears in a 9th Century edition of Apuleiuss Commentary on
Aristotles Perihermeni
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 3)
4.2 Exercises
The following three sets of questions ask you to read a brief passage and comment on
whether there is a problem of relevance. Most of the time, the answer should be fairly clear.
Be prepared
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (Version 2)
4.2 Questions of Relevance I
Questions of relevance and fallacies of relevance
The previous section identified three critical questions to have in mind when evaluating an
inductive argument: (1) are the pr
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (Version 2)
4.5 Fallacies of Assumption and Ambiguity
So far, we have studied two common types of fallacy, fallacies of relevance and fallacies of
insufficient evidence. In a fallacy of relevance, the premises are not
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
5.1 Exercises
I. For each the following standard form categorical propositions, (1) identify the four parts and
letter name, then (2) replace the terms with convenient letters. The first is an example.
1.
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (Version 2)
2.3 Types of Inductive Argument
An inductive argument is one where it is alleged that the premises give probable support
for the conclusion. That is to say, given the truth of the premises, the conclusion
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
2.3 Exercises
I. (1) Identify the type of inductive argument; (2) circle their conclusions.
1. You should make sure your kids don't eat the dirt in your backyard. Doctors warn that
ordinary backyard dirt c
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.2 Validity of Categorical Syllogisms
It is one thing to put a syllogism into standard form and quite another to determine whether
it is valid. There are a couple of ways to do this. First, you can memori
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.5 Barbara
As paper was in short supply in the Middle Ages, people tended to do a lot of things in their
headslike math, logic, the Bible, Aristotle, the grocery list, and even email. But as none of
the m
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
CHAPTER 6: THE CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
6.1 Categorical Syllogisms: Standard form, Mood, and Figure
A categorical syllogism is a deductive argument composed of three categorical propositions
and three separat
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.3 Rules and Fallacies for Categorical Syllogisms
Philosophers discovered long ago that syllogisms can be seen as subject to rules which
determine their validity. Simply put, if a syllogism does not viola
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.2 Standard Form and Venn Diagram Exercises
I. (1) Put the following arguments into standard form, (2) identify their mood and figure, and
(3) draw Venn diagrams to test Validitysome may be invalid. Hint:
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.3 Exercises
I. Use the rules to derive the conclusions of the following valid syllogisms. Hint: you can also
use Venn diagrams to achieve the same result.
1.
No M are P
Some S are M
Some S are not P
4.
N
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.1 Exercises
I. The following categorical syllogisms are not in standard form. (1) Put them in standard
form; (2) symbolize them; (3) identify their major, minor, and middle terms, their mood, and
their f
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.1 Exercises Answers
I. The following categorical syllogisms are not in standard form. (1) Put them in standard
form; (2) symbolize them using the first letter of each term; (3) identify their major, mino
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.3 Exercises
I. Use the rules to derive the conclusions of the following valid syllogisms. Hint: you can also
use Venn diagrams to achieve the same result. The first one is an example:
1.
No M are P
Some
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
6.2 Standard Form and Venn Diagram Exercises
I. (1) Put the following arguments into standard form, (2) identify their mood and figure, and
(3) draw Venn diagrams to test Validitysome may be invalid. Hint:
Basics of Critical Thinking and Logic (version 2)
6.4 Counterexamples for Categorical Syllogisms
A counterexample can be used to illustrate or prove that a categorical syllogism is invalid.
The method is based on the definition of an invalid argument as o
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
2.2 Types of Deductive Argument
On one definition, a deductive argument is one whose conclusions are alleged to follow by
necessity, given the truth of the premises. But what does this of necessity mean? W
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
4.4 Fallacies of Insufficient Evidence
Recall that there are four basic types of inductive argument: generalization, causal argument,
argument from analogy, and argument from authority. The fallacies we ha
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (Version 2)
2.4 Evaluating arguments
Recall that arguments do two fundamental things:
1. Allege facts;
2. Allege connections between facts.
The first thing a factual claim and the second thing a logical claim. For an
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
5.2 Translation of Categorical Propositions
The study of categorical propositions, or all of logic for that matter, would be of little use if it
bore no relation to reality. Absent such a relation, logic w
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 2)
4.5 Exercises: Fallacies of Assumption and Ambiguity
Dichotomies
Read the following passages and determine whether the dichotomies are fallacious or not.
1. The menu says you can have cheddar, American, or
Basics of Logic and Critical Thinking (version 3)
4.2 Exercises
The following three sets of questions ask you to read a brief passage and comment on
whether there is a problem of relevance. Most of the time, the answer should be fairly clear.
Be prepared
4.4 Exercises: Fallacies of Insufficient Evidence
Consider the following examples of arguments. Distinguish between the good ones and the
bad ones.
Generalizations. Be sure to identify the general claim and the evidence for it. Determine
whether the argum