Classify the following amines as primary, secondary or tertiary:
Primary: (i) and (iii)
(i) Write structures of different isomeric amines
Chemistry 100 Study Guide
1. Name the following hydrocarbon, identify the functional group and give the
product of the following addition reaction with hydrogen.
2. a. Give the IUPAC name for CH3-C-CH2-CH2-CH
BIO 310 Test 2 Review
1) An organism's structure and _ reflect adaptations to its particular environment.
2) The alternate forms of a gene are called _.
3) The o
BIO 310 Ch. 6 Assignment
1. Explain by illustration the Light and Dark reactions of photosynthesis.
2. How does the PAR to the leaf influence the rate of photosynthesis?
3. How is CO2 taken up by aquatic autotrophs?
- Aquatic plants get water and carbon d
Atoms, Molecules and Ions
1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called
atoms. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of
all other elements.
2. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element.
3. Chemical reactions i
Background: basic atomic structure
Sub-atomic particles include: Protons (p+),
neutrons (n ) and electrons (e)
Bohrs model assume that e-s orbit the
nucleus in allowed orbits (energy levels).
Helium atom is
In the Bohr model, the e- i
The Periodic Table of Elements
Atomic Weight = Number of Protons + Number of Neutrons*
Symbols and Charges for Monoatomic lons (Fixed Charge)
Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century
Health and Medicine
Surgery with anesthesia
Vaccines and antibiotics
Energy and the Environment
Chemistry: A Science for the 21st C
Elements that exist as gases at 25oC and 1 atmosphere
As P (h) increases
If P doubles, V is cut in half.
If P is tripled, V becomes 1/3 of
its original value.
As the pressure on a gas
increases, the volume
% Composition of a Compound;
Empirical and Molecular Formula
Limiting Reactants and % Yield
1. Molar Mass:
Molecular mass (or molecular weight) is the sum of
the atomic masses
Thermochemistry is the study of heat changes associated
with a chemical reaction.
Exothermic process is any process that gives off heat
transfers thermal energy from the system to the surroundings.
2H2 (g) + O2 (g)
2H2O (l) + energy
Endothermic process i
Concentrations of Solutions
Molarity, Mass and Volume
Preparation of Molar Solutions
Concentrations of Solutions
A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or
more substances. Example: Soft drink (l)
Analysis of Vitamin C
Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid, H2C6H6O6) is a
necessary nutrient for quality health, as well as normal growth
and development. Keeping a consistent amount of Vitamin C in
ones diet is o
June 15, 2016
A separation technique, commonly used in an organic chemistry lab setting, is that of an
extraction. An extraction, meaning to withdraw from or pull out, can be used by dentists,
doctors, as well as chemists. In chemistry, an
June 30, 2016
Recrystallization is a common method used to purify a sample. As the name
implies a solid sample with suspect purity is dissolved in an appropriate solvent. The
dissolution process is achieved by heating or changing the pH. Wh
June 30, 2016
The purity of a solid may be determined by measuring its melting point. The
melting point is the temperature at which the solid and liquid states of a substance are
in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure. Melting points are ge
Chapter 5 Ions & Ionic Compounds
A. Chemical Activity and Electron Configuration
B. Noble Gases
C. Valence Electrons & Kernel Electrons
D. For a compound to be classified as an IONIC Compound
its molecule must:
1. contain a METALLIC cation
Chapter 3 Atoms & Moles (Matter)
Section 3.1 (page 72)
You learned that Matter is anything that has weight & takes up space
A. The QUESTION now is, what makes up Matter?
B. The debate on Matter dates back to 450BC (Greek Philosophers
Lecture 1 Notes: Intro to Course
[NH4 ] [OH ]
Base ionization constant Kb=
Kb is 1.8 x 10-5 at 25C. This small value tells us that only a small amount of NH3 is present as
NH4+. A strong base reacts essentially completely to give OH- (aq) when put
Lecture 4 Notes: Oxidation Reactions
Guidelines for assigning oxidation numbers
1) In free elements, each atom has an oxidation number of zero. Example H2
2) For ions composed of only one atom the oxidation number is equal to
Lecture 3 Notes: Titrations
Example: Titration of weak acid with strong base
25.0 mL of 0.10 M HCOOH with 0.15 M NaOH (Ka = 1.77 x 10-4 for HCOOH)
1. Volume = 0 mL of NaOH added
Before any NaOH is added, the problem is that of an ionization of a weak acid
Lecture 2 Notes: Acid Buffers
Acid buffer action: The weak acid, HA, transfers protons to OH ions supplied by strong base.
The conjugate base, A-, of the weak acid accepts protons from the H3O+ ions supplied by a strong acid.
A strong acid and the salt
Lecture 5 Notes: Natural Metals
E for flavodoxin is -0.230 V
Is the reduction of vitamin B12 by flavodoxin spontaneous?
E(cell) = E(reduction) - E (oxidation)
= E (vitamin B12) - E (flavodoxin)
= -0.526 V -(-0.230 V) = -0.296 V
G = -nE = -(1)(96485 Cmol-1
Lecture 9 Notes: Gas-Phases
Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
A qualitative observation is that reaction rates tend to increase with increased temperature. Now
we will consider the quantitative effect.
In 1889, Svante Arrhenius plotted rat
Lecture 8 Notes: Reaction Mechanism
Investigating Reaction Mechanisms (Ch 13.8)
2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g)
It is experimentally determined that the rate of formation of NO2 is kobs [NO]2[O2]
Overall order = ?
Is a one step mechanism likely?
Lecture 7 Notes: Radioactive Decay
The decay of a nucleus is _ of the number of surrounding nuclei that have decayed.
We can apply first order integrated rate laws:
[A] = [A]0 e-k t
t1/2 = 0.6931
However, instead of concentration,
Lecture 10 Notes: Minimization of Stress
Increasing the temperature can cause reaction to shift in endothermic direction.
= E a,f - E
Lecture 6 Notes: Kinetics
Topics: Rates of Chemical Reactions and Rate Law
When considering a chemical reaction, one must ask whether the reaction will go
(thermodynamics), and how fast the reaction will go (kinetics).