Lecture 3 Notes: Phase Equilibria
Goal: Understand the general phenomenology of phase
transitionsand phase coexistence conditions for a single component
system.
The Chemical Potential controls phase transitions and phase
equilibria.
Equilibrium condition
Lecture 5 Notes: Two-Component Phases
How do we use liquid-gas binary mixture phase diagrams?
We use them to find the compositions of the gas and liquid phases at
coexistence.
Consider again our typical system:
A(g), yA
B(g), yB=1-yA
Here A is more volati
Lecture 4 Notes: Clausius Theory
Lets revisit solid-gas & liquid-gas equilibria. We can make an
approximation:
V
gas
V
,V
solid
V
liquid
subl
, V
vap
V
gas
We can ignore the molar volume of the condensed phase compared to
the gas.
Taking the Clapeyron equ
Lecture 1 Notes: Chemical
Introductions
Ideal Gases
Question: What is the composition of a reacting mixture of ideal
gases?
N2(g, T, p) + 3/2 H2(g, T, p) = NH3(g, T, p)
e.g.
What are pN2,pH2, andpNH3
at equilibrium?
Lets look at a more general case
A A(g
Lecture 9 Notes: Half-Life Reactions
aA + bB cC + dD
Rate of Reaction:
Rate
1 dB 1 dC 1 dD
1 d A
a dt
b dt
c dt
d dt
Experimentally Ratek
Where
Cii
N
i1
k = rate constant
Ci = Concentration of Reactant i
i = Order of reaction with respect to
reactant i
Lecture 6 Notes: Colligative
Properties
These are properties of solutions in the dilute limit, where there is a
solvent A and a solute B where nA> nB.
mix
These properties are a direct result of A
pure
(l,T,p) A
(l,T,p)
Use two measures of concentration:
Lecture 10 Notes: Reversible Reactions
III)
Reversible Reactions
B
k1
A
If 1
st
K
B
k-1
order,
eq
eq
Aeq
Rforward = Rf = k1[A]
Rbackward = Rb = k-1[B]
At Equilibrium, Rf = Rb
k1[A]eq = k-1[B]eq
k1
Keq
k
1
st
a) 1
order reversible reactions
A
B
k1
d[A]
k
Lecture 2 Notes: Chemical Potentials
The chemical potential for molecules in solution is given by a formula
that is very similar to that for ideal gases:
o
o
AT , p,cAA T , p RT lncAA T , p RT lnA
The precise definition of the standard chemical potential
Lecture 8 Notes: Advanced Chemical Reactions
Apply statistical mechanics to develop microscopic models for problems youve
treated so far with macroscopic thermodynamics
Separated atoms
0
Products
Reactants
Product & reactant
E
energy levels
r = -D0,r
p =
Lecture 7 Notes: Energy Levels
Starting with QM energy levels for molecular translation, rotation, & vibration,
solve for q and Q, & all the thermodynamics, for these degrees of freedom. The
results are the fundamentals of molecular statistical mechanics.