H heidelbergensis- with Neanderthals, one of two groups traditionally referred to as
"archaic Homo sapiens"
H heidelbergensis= considered as a species linking H erectus to H sapiens therefore H
heidelbergensis considered directl
Discovered west of Lake Turkana in Kenya
Dated to 3.2 - 3.5 million years ago
Different mix of primitive and derived traits than anamensis or afarensis
Primitive: small brain, protruding lower face, small ear hole
Earliest Biped = Sahelanthropus tchadensis
1. Oldest species thought to be hominid
2. Discovered in Chad
Dated to b/w 6 and 7 million years ago
4. Remains: number of jaws + teeth, one distorted partial cranium
Back of the sk
I. What is evolution?
2. Biological Evolution
1. Change in the hereditary characteristics of groups of organisms over the course of
1. DNA change through mutagen
1. Assortment and recombinatio
Big bang to Humankind
I. SNP Single nucleotide polymorphisms
1. A place where sequence varies among individuals.
2. Occurs throughout the genome
3. Are used as genetic markers.
4. Any two people are 99-99.5% identical at genetic level
1. About every 300 b
I. Biology section
1. Life: A characteristic of organisms that exhibit the following phenomenon.
1. Need energy (metabolism)
2. Have organization
3. Grow and development
4. Respond to their surroundings
5. Reproduce on their own
1. The scienti
Accretion causes heat due to compression, radiation
BIG EVENT: Differentiation: iron goes to middle, compression causes heat to rise out, rocky
stuff moves out. Iron Core, rocky mantle
BiG SMASH: Mars sized object
Post differentiation- th
Big Bang to Humankind
I. What is the origin of the heavy elements comprising our planet and our bodies?
1. Sun's composition:
1. Center is carbon ash
2. Then the helium burning shell
3. then hydrogen burning shell
4. Outside of it is the non burning envel
Big Bang to Humankind
1. Evolution implies nothing besides change: developmental change and genetic change.
2. Universe is a result of a massive explosion, galaxies settle where gaps are borb,
Big bang to humankind
1). The two big events that have happened with in 50 million years:
1. First, the gravitational pull from the earth brought the heavier metals from the protoplanet
into the center to form the solid core
2. Theia, a protoplanet smaller
I. Earth's Formation
1. Proto earth heated during accretion due to: collision, compression, and
2. All melted > iron moves to the center > planet is differentiated
3. Eventually core will cool and freeze b/c all metal is already
I. Why is Carbon Dioxide So Important?
1. Carbon is the basis of organic molecules.
2. Carbon is easily recycled between areas of the earth
1. In order, its presence is Lithosphere, Deep Ocean, Fossil Fuels, Biosphere, Atmosphere,
I. Biology - Reproduction
1. Cell cycle in Eukaryotes
1.1. A typical Eukaryotic Cell divides every 24 hours. Budding years divides in
about ~2 Hours
1.2. Eukaryotic Cell cycle is divided into two basic parts
1.2.1. Mitosis (M)
1.2.2. Interphase (G
How is the human past investigated
1. What are the methods in the field?
1.1. First, a researcher must do background research:
1.1.1. Geological Maps
The rock types/formations in the area
1.1.2. Soil Maps and Soil Survey
1). (largest) Lithosphere, Deep Ocean, Fossil Fuels, Biosphere, Atmosphere, Surface
b). These results did surprise me. In every science class I've taken, we've covered mainly the
carbon present in vegetatio
Jack Fleming - 991154879
1). Unlike what are called single-gene diseases. CMT can be caused by variation in any of up to 39
genes, allowing for a study of the factors from both of the parents, and how the deficiencies of either
parent interacts to form th
-Dark Matter and Dark Energy
What is the distinction?
Matter = pull gravitationally inward
Energy = pushes universe outwards
Starts on outskirts of galaxies should be going slowly compared to the ones in the middle if its
1.a. One of the central reasons that we, as a scientific community, know so much about stars is that our
lives exist on a very basic level on the workings of a star: our sun. We can study stars directly; that is,
we live in an enviro
1. Before enhanced brain size, early human ancestors developed bipedalism and adapted to their
environments via use of tools.
b. Scientists must have assumed that only a change in brain size could produce an evolutionarily