Aethelbehrt - King of Kent in 570s-580s, had married Frankish King Charibert's daughter,
the former had been required to allow a Frankish bishop and retinue into his kingdom. Pope
Gregory, sent a monk named Augustine (d. 605) to Kent in 597, whom Aethelbe
Beyond Commodius' illustration that second-century
emperors could be just as venal and ill-equipped as had
been Caligula (r. 37-41) and Nero (r. 54-68), the period
commencing with the Severan dynasty (193 CE) and
ending with Constantine's death (337 CE) e
Illus - Isaurian general. At times allied to Zeno, the latter's opponents tried to lure Illus
away with offers of power. Finally revolted in earnest in 483 and was put down by Ostrogoths
acting on Zeno's behalf.
Burgundians - Barbarian tribe moving throug
Lombards - Barbarian tribe from beyond Danube, came west in 550s and invaded Italy
from 568, setting up a kingdom in the north as well as duchies of Spoleto and Benevento in
South. Pressured Pope, raided severely, brought on Dark Ages. Defeated by Pepin I
umma - Word for 'Islamic world': all Muslims, and area of Muslim control.
Shi'ite - Party of Ali, those who felt he should have been first Caliph, and that only his
descendents are fit to rule Islamic state. View all others as illegitimate. Becomes religi
Louis the German - Son of Louis the Pious. After Fontenoy in 843, received eastern
districts from the Marches beyond the Elbe to just outside Strasbourg, and from Denmark in
the north to the Adriatic in the south.
Magyars - Tribes, perhaps Turkish, pushed
Ostrogoths - One of the two main branches of Goths (westerners are Visigoths);
subjugated by Huns around 370s, broke free in 460s, raided in Eastern Roman Danube
areas from 470s. Under Theodoric, sent West by Zeno, where they unseated Odovacar and
Theodosius II (408-450) - Eastern Emperor when Huns begin raiding in Danube area.
Attila - Hun king from 440s; raided from Danube into Byzantium, then headed west in 451.
Marcian - East Roman Emperor from 450, refuses to increase Hun tribute. Presides ove
Master of Soldiers - Chief of Staff of all Roman forces; there was one in East and West,
or a supreme one when the empire was united.
foederati - Agreement between Roman government and tribes on other side of border to
work as auxiliaries in army, in retu
In the West, while Lombards and other various tribes held Italy in uneasy alliances, the
three-way split of France between the Burgundians, Visigoths and Franks had been decided
in favor of the latter, in the form of the Merovingian dynasty of Clovis and
The question that presents itself, therefore, is: when did the Middle Ages begin? A Romanist
perspective would dictate that we put Medieval origins in the generation starting with
Diocletian and ending with Constantine's death, a period when administrativ
Defining the years from 300-1000 CE as "The Early Middle Ages" indicates, more than
anything else, the perspective of modern historians and Renaissance writers who looked
back with disgust on the disorder and inelegance of preceding years. Writing in a ti
Beginning in the middle of the 3rd century CE, the Roman Empire faced increasing
Germanic tribe infiltration and internal political chaos. Romans set up generals as emperors,
who were quickly deposed by rival claimants. This pattern continued until Diocle
Date:_ Period: _
HISTORY 9-1 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
1. What geographical factor helped to account for the rise of separate city-states in Greece rather
than one central government?
2. Where did ancient