Warm and responsive parents lead to high S-E:
makes children feel competent and worthwhile.
But, overly tolerant/indulgent parents create false
sense of self-esteem.
Families are unusual in the animal kingdom:
Tend to occur only wh
Maltreatment by parents
Child maltreatment is intentional abuse or neglect that endangers the well-being
of anyone under the age of 18 years.
Seventy-five percent of perpetrators are parents, usually
Child abuse is associated with
Half the substantiated c
Family Lifestyles and transitions
One child families
Is an only child disadvantaged?
The stereotype: YES (over-indulged, feel pressure)
But: sibling relationships have benefits but are not essential
Only children are:
Same in West and China (though larger
Depends on hours in child care and number of caregivers
Cognitive Stimulation is found at high quality centers
Children may learn social skills or negative behaviors
Children may bring other home baggage with them to
Well adjusted parents handle
Psychological Protects child, engages in
Are often less engaged with stepchildre
Multiple aspects of self-esteem?
Children develop many self-esteems, then integrate them.
Factor analysis used to determine nature of self-esteem:
From 7 onward:
Adolescence: + close friendship,
Permissive Child Rearing
Nurturant and accepting
But few demands or controls on behavior
Early decisions allowed
Parents: some believe this is way to raise child others lack confidence
Long term effects: poor self-control - more dr
Self-esteem (SE) judgments are
Childrens self evaluations affect emotional experiences and LT psychological
Begins as soon as categorical self contain + and - features.
LAWSEQ Self-Esteem Questionnaire - Primary School Version
School and Neighborhood as Contributors to Self-Esteem
Living in poverty is associated with lower self-esteem
Minority children are more likely to live in poverty, with consequent
effects on self-esteem.
Self-esteem is higher for Euro-American childr
Parenting Styles and Ethnicity
The effects of different parenting styles and practices vary
somewhat as a function of ethnic or racial group
Among African-American adolescents at all economic
levels, an aspect of authoritarian control was associated with