1st MIDTERM EXAM (130 points + 25 bonus)
1) What is a light-year?
A. a measure of time
B. a measure of distance
C. a calendar year on Mercury
D. none of the above
2) Which of the following correctly lists our co
Astronomy Final Review
Monday May 6th, 12-2
80 Questions 700 points
A galaxy that appears to be populated by most red stars, likely:
Had blue stars that are not present anymore but were at one time long ago
o If a
Impress me Project
The History of Astronomy
From the beginning of human history
The first men wondered what is out there
When they looked up during the day
It is blue sky covered by white cloud
When they looked
Astronomy 9: Concepts of the Cosmos (Spring 2013)
Monday and Wednesday from 1:30 PM to 2:45 PM in Cabot Auditorium, 3rd oor, Cabot
Intercultural Center, Medford Campus
Danilo Marchesini, Science & Technology Ce
Astronomy 9: Concepts of the Cosmos (Spring 2013)
TENTATIVE COURSE AND READING SCHEDULE
(The required reading in the book is specied in parenthesis)
Presentation of the course
2nd MIDTERM EXAM (130 points + 26 bonus)
NOTE: The spectral type sequence is OBAFGKM
1) Which of these groups of particles has the greatest mass?
A. a helium nucleus with two protons and two neutrons
B. four ele
3rd MIDTERM EXAM (130 points + 35 bonus)
1) Where are most of the Milky Ways globular clusters found?
A. in the disk.
B. in the bulge.
C. in the halo.
2) Why do disk stars bob up and down as they orbit the galax
1. Earth is part of the solar system, which is in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is a
member of the Local Group of galaxies in the Local Supercluster
2. The matter of our body came from the Big Bang, which produced hydrogen and
helium; all other el
1. If we measure a stars apparent brightness and distance, we can compute its
luminosity with the inverse square law of light.
2. Parallax tells us distances to the nearest stars.
3. A stars color and spectral type both reflect its temperature.
1. An HR diagram plots stellar luminosity of stars versus surface temperature (or color or spectral
2. Normal stars that fuse H to He in their cores fall on the main sequence of an HR diagram.
3. A stars mass determines its position alon
-Stars within a galaxy never collide the spaces between them are massive compared to the
-However, spaces between galaxies are comparable to the size of galaxies.
(orbital separation)^3 is proportional to (orbital period)^2
Ch. 16: Dark Matter and Energy, and the Fate of the Universe
16.1 Unseen Influences in the Cosmos
What is dark matter and dark energy?
Dark Matter mass that emits no detectable radiation
o Inferred from its gravitational effects
o Seems to be more matt
Chapter 17: The Beginning of Time
17.1 The Big Bang
What were conditions like in the early universe?
The universe was so hot during its first few seconds that photons could transform
themselves into matter and vice versa
When two photons collide creat
3/24/2008 3:10:00 PM Most water on mars= polar caps and subsurface ground ice greenhouse gases asteroids and comets are unchanged since their formation in the solar nebula oort cloud is farthest from sun as growing jovian planets captured gas from so
Which will have a greater core temperature and density a higher mass star or a
low mass star?
Which will then have a greater fusion rate?
Which will use up its fuel more quickly?
What is the fuel?
Consider a main sequ
Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe
1.1 Modern View of the Universe
What is our place in the universe?
Geocentric Universe: earth-centered
Our Solar System: Sun + all objects that orbit it
Milky Way Galaxy: all stars we can see
o Disk-shaped collect
Chapter 3: The Science of Astronomy
3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science
How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies?
Central Africa moon orientation tied to rainfall patterns
Keep track of time and seasons
Length of day = Sun across the
Chapter 4: Making Sense of the Universe
4.1 Describing Motion
Speed how far an object will go in a certain amount of time (d/t)
Velocity speed and direction of object
o Constant velocity: dont feel effects of movement (airplane)
Acceleration if veloc
Chapter 5: Light
5.1 Basic Properties of Light and Matter
Suns spectrum: light as it appears when we pass it through prism
o Not a pure rainbow
o Hundred of dark lines small pieces of rainbow is missing from sunlight
o All features: created by interact
Chapter 11: Surveying the Stars
11.1 Properties of Stars
Form in clouds of gas and dust
4/3 hydrogen, 1.4 helium, 2% heavier elements
Apparent Brightness depends on distance as well as on how much light it
o Amount of power (energy per second) pe
13.1 White Dwarfs
Low-mass stars like the Sun leave behind white dwarfs when they die
Higher-mass stars leave behind neutron stars and black holes
What is a white dwarf?
Exposed core of a star that has died and she
Ch. 14: Our Galaxy
14.1 The Milky Way Revealed
What does our galaxy look like?
Spiral Galaxy spiral arms, which are part of a flat disk of stars surrounded a
o Disk surrounded by dimmer, rounder halo
o Most bright stars disk
o Globular cl
Chapter 15: Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology
15.1 Islands of Stars
Observable universe contains well over 100 billion galaxies
We see young galaxies only at great distances distances at which we are looking
back into the universes past
3/27/2008 5:33:00 PM
ridges in the middle of oceans are places where hot mantle material rises up and spreads sideways pushing the plates apart lithosphere= the rigid rocky material of crust and uppermost portion of mantle convection= pro