From Bill to Law
Introduction of Bill Issue-Attention Cycle - ?
12/10/2007 3:44:00 PM
Policy Entrepreneurship - ? Policy Gap o when there is absolutely no policies with regard to a certain issue and a congressman makes legislation with regard to th
DELIBERATIONS AT THE SUPREME COURT
o Session: October through June, most decisions issued in spring
o The Process:
o 1. Oral argument: one hour per case, no matter what. The arguments made by
attorneys not necessarily as coherent as one might think, gets
JUDICIAL BRANCH: SUPREME COURT
An independent judiciary:
o Supreme court, u.s. court of appeals, u.s. district courts
o 13 different courts of appeals (12 regional and 1 for federal circuit in D.C.)
o Supreme court determines constitutionality of lower c
Administrative discretion: Congress leaves details about implementation out of the written law. Appropriate office is to implement policy in fair and reasonable manner or in
manner that is in public interest.
o Why? Well, its n
THE UNPOPULAR PAC:
o The Political Action Committee
o Citizens may not pay attention to most congressional happenings, but groups sure
do. They pay a lot of attention.
o Law put limits on what individuals could give to candidates, to PACs, and what
o WATERGATE AND ITS LESSONS:
1972 election approaches, and Nixon wants to guarantee victory
CREEP: committee to reelect the president
During the Democratic primaries, they:
o Planted stories about democratic primary candidates, like
that the Muskie, th
Elections and Ballots
Progressive era measures to increase direct democracy:
Elections held on Tuesdays because of religious commitments
Power of the Media
The media also controls how information is
Debate 1: How should democracy function?
- Different forms of democratic governance
Scale of Direct to Representative
Large groups and coordination
-Federalist 10 and Tyranny of Majority
Good Citizen vs Rational Actor
Executive Branch and Presidential Power
Executive privilege: is a right but not granted to Nixon in 1974
United Government: same party in White House and Congress
Divided Government: different party in White House and Congress
Judiciary and Del
Introduction to American Politics: Book Review Paper
For all of her strengths, the United States of America ranks embarrassingly low
when it comes to female politicians in elected positions. As of November 1 st, 2
Intro. American Politics Literature Review
When Does A Challenger Beat an Incumbent?
The incumbency effect, the idea that a candidate in an election has an
advantage over the challenger simply due to the fact that he/she is an inc
What other factors depress turnout?
Maybe elections are less competitive?
o Research finds competitiveness definitely matters
o There has been a decline in competitiveness of congressional races
o Battleground states have significantly higher turnout
What led to the Articles of Confederation
o Oppressive King George III, didnt want a gov. that was strong. Where there
wasnt a lot of power for one person
o Weak central gov.
Gov didnt have power to tax. Had to plead for money from the states
Equality is a central player in debates about the role of the government
How much are we willing to restrict individual freedom to promote equality
Civil liberties: freedoms guaranteed to individuals (negative freedoms)
Civil rights: powe
The Media: News
Connect citizens to government
Through coverage of public opinion, citizen activism
Enriched in the constitution: fairly unique take on the right to free press as
essential to democracy
Media is aligned
o People love their media but not th
Freedoms guaranteed to individuals
o Negative freedoms
o Declare what govt cannot do
Debates about civil rights often involve the idea of freedom versus order
Hard to deny the wisdom of the anti-federalists
Government has often tried t
INTEREST GROUPS & HUMAN NATURE: How citizens interact with gov
o Federalist 10:
o Federalists understood and based their conception on human nature. Tried
to channel human nature, the territorialism and power hungriness to work
in their favor, if men were
PRESIDENTIAL CONTROL OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
o The Cabinet
15 departments (of agriculture, of education, of state, etc) and 13 independent agencies (CIA, elections, office of management and budget (omb),
environmental protection agency, etc)
tens of t
How do Americans think about and understand Politics Surveys: are an attempt to study samples, collection of individuals from pop to get a
sample of pop, of the pop Population Sample Respondents Probability sampling- based on random selection Random
American Political Culture Anti-Authoritarianism: against and mistrust for political authority. All elements work against big business. Cynicism towards politicians: Mistrust of ppl as shown in fed. Papers See politics as a necessary evil Distaste fo
Federalists Papers Ideas behind the Constitution Attempted to sway public opinion by influencing beliefs of pol leaders Letters to Editor: From a NY Newspaper from 1777-1778 Didn't have a union without NY, thus published in NY Debator's Handbook: 85
Changing Presidential Nominations Process Who will be the delegates from each state that go to the national conventions and which candidates they will be supporting. The process is about securing the votes of the delegates but diff. in olden days(36
Liberty and Equality Political Culture: a set of widely shared beliefs, values and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to their gov. and to one another in matters affecting public affairs. Pol. Culture and Alexis de Tocqueville: Toc. Wanted
Extremism and Moderation in the U.S.
A set of principles that individuals ascribe to often with great conviction, that guides
attitudes on specific policy issues.
These ideas develop over time and at young ages.
A reluctance to cha
Voting Rights Act and Southern Politics Jim Crow Laws: segregation laws 1890's and used by wealthy whites to keep out this (above) alliance. Denial of the Vote in the Jim Crow South: News sought to dilute black voting powers Disenfranchisement- used
America Votes and Doesn't Vote Theories: Rational choice theory: ppl don't believe that their votes have much to do with the outcome of the election, but this theory doesn't work bc ppl still vote bc feel compelled to vote Minimize Regret Theory: Ppl
Factions: a group of people united for common purpose. Federalist 10, Madison, larger republic allows for more factions. Dangerous, but unavoidable.
Federalism: system of government whereby a nation is composed of distinct parts,
each retaining a
CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS AND STRATEGIC POLITICIANS
- Robin Carnahan please
- THE INCUMBENT ADVANTAGE: Average reelection rate 95% since 1990.
o Name recall vs. name recognition: 28% can conjure up the name of incumbent,
but 90% will recognize it if they he
RETURN OF THE VOTER
On high voter turnout in 2008
Not just about mobilization by campaigns.
Claims of fraud in voter registration w/ database matching, people often have the same name, I
dont even get it to be honest
Realignment: ABOUT EVERY 35 YEARS
CONGRESS AND THE PORK BARREL
- SERVICE TO THE DISTRICT
o Contributes to the incumbents invulnerability
o They serve their districts well, and they are in a position to do so.
o Case workers: member of the congresspersons staff just there to help constitue