PRINCIPLES OF THE
METAPHYSIC OF MORALS
Translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott
A Penn State Electronic Classics Series Publication
Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals by Immanuel Kant, trans. Thomas Kingsmill
JOHN STUART MILL
Longmans, Green, and Co.
A PENN STATE ELECTRONIC CLASSICS SERIES PUBLICATION
Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill is a publication of the Pennsylvania State Unive
Something is intrinsically good if and only if it is good per se, good in and
of itself, good regardless of its effects or consequences.
Something is extrinsically good if and only
In philosophy, as in e.g. science and history, we aim to tell the truth. But to
establish the truth of our claims we cannot do experiments (as we can in science), nor
can we appeal to documents, relics etc. (as we can in history). All we have
PHIL 24: Ethics (Paper 2)
Utilitarianism: Some Suggested Topics
Length: 5 pp/1200 words (1500 words absolute max)
Due date: Monday, 10/21/13-Hard Copy (in class). Do not submit through Trunk
These are only suggestions. Dont worry if you have space onl
PHIL 24: Ethics (Fall, 2013)
Paper 1: Relativism and Religiously Based Ethical Theories
5 pp/1200 words (1500 words absolute max)
In class, Wednesday, 10/2/13. Please do not submit it through Trunk
Hard copy; typed (readable font styl
The Standard Argument Against Abortion:
A fetus (embryo, conceptus) is a person.
If a fetus (embryo, conceptus) is a person, then it has a right to life.
If a fetus (embryo, conceptus) has a right to life, then abortion is morally wr
Subjective v. Objective
An event cannot be reduced to a description of the event.
Zombie is a technical term.
Qualia = Qualitative properties of experience.
Subjective point of view, qualia, etc. these are all high level philosophical problems.
Dualism (Smullyan Article)
Why are we talking about it?
-Could be arguing that soul and mind are separate
-Notion of mind as part of body
-Forces us to ask the tough question.
Tough Questions - Why are they tough?
-Too personally taxing
Skepticism on the topic from last class - people dont buy the idea that theres
hidden knowledge in inaccessible parts of the brain.
Why cant we defend functionalism with the chinese is in there somewhere
Searle never speaks chinese, whereas the
Can we say: Searles argument fails because he does understand chinese,
the knowledge/understanding is in a part of the brain to which he has no access?
Elaboration on the systems approach.
Difference between neurons and consciousness - our neurons
2001: A Space Odyssey - Clip we saw: taking apart the logic & memory
section of HAL 9000 after it goes against them. takes apart the AI piece by piece.
Mission to jupiter, notion of extraterrestrial life.
while removing the memory tapes, we see a gradual
Jan Vermeer used a camera obscura - captured the light of an image.
Properties of image v. real object
Image is 2-D, objects are 3-D. Image is inverted.
Physical analogy between the eye and the camera obscura - take in light rays,
Functionalism -> Behaviorism:
Functionalism is a more elaborate and inclusive behaviorism, in that rather
than limiting itself to external input coupled with internal states, it also allows for
interaction within and between mental states coupled with the
What is consciousness?
Consciousness v. Self Consciousness
Knowledge of being awake = consciousness?
Which one do we want? Whats the difference?
Apes tend to react to marks when looking at mirrors by
checking themselves, whereas other monkeys reach for th
How do we incorporate original arguments?
where do arguments come from in general?
What is an argument?
A set of premises and a conclusion
A good argument shifts the burden of proof - George
Where do you find arguments?
Biopic - Derek Jarmus film Wittgenstein
Lived by himself on the coast of Norway - had visitors from time to time, but
they thought he was close to the brink of madness.
The Deep Question - What is it to Follow a Rule?
Projection of past practice to future