Attitudes, Part I
Chapter 6 asks three questions:
o What is an attitude and how is it measured?
o How do others persuade us to change attitudes?
o How do our own actions persuade us to change attitudes?
What is an attitude?
o Enduring evaluation
a. Stereotypes: beliefs about a person based on group membership
b. Prejudice: negative feelings about person based on group membership
c. Discrimination: Negative behavior based on group membership
i. ABCS of Psychol
Chapter 8 contd
a. Kip Williams and Colleagues
i. Effects of social ostracism
1. Exclusion from game
2. Exclusion from internet game
3. Exclusion via cell phone text message
ii. Leads to lower self-esteem, even at this level
Group Processes: Part I
o Social Facilitation
o Social Loafing
o Performances Advantages & Disadvantages
i. 2+ people in same place at same time, but minimal interaction
1. Spectators at
a. Background and Definitions
b. Gender & Culture
c. Nature v. Nurture
d. Social Learning Theory and Media
e. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
Different Types of Aggression
a. Instrumental Aggression
i. Inflicting ha
Prejudice and Discrimination
a. Many psychological processes at play with test taking
b. Test-Taking Differences
i. Data indicate generalized test-taking differences
1. Between males & females on math tests
2. Between Whites &
Group Processes, Part II
a. Any aspect of being group that impairs its effectiveness
i. Biased Sampling: process with which group focuses on shared information
than one unique information
1. Information that they already all have
a. Stress and its Effect
b. Attributions & Perceptions
c. Pursuing Happiness
d. Coping Strategies
e. Clinical Decision-Making
a. Unpleasant state of arousal resulting from taxing, demanding situation
i. Severity d
a. Studying intersection of psych and law has multiple purposes:
i. Psychological methods can help answer important legal questions
ii. Legal system useful for testing the real world applicability of psychological th
More Age-Old Questions
- Why are relationships so important to us?
- What draws us to certain people?
- What keeps relationships together or breaks them apart?
Why are relationships so important to us?
a. Need for Affiliation
i. We are m
a. Remember, the motivation to propagate genes influential
b. Gender differences result from different evolutionary needs
i. Argument: Women need to be picky b/c can only have so many chi
I. Compliance Strategies continued
a. Door in the face technique:
i. Ex: First ask Ps to volunteer 2 hrs/wk for 2 years
ii. Next, Ps asked to chaperone zoo visit
iii. People much more likely to say yes to the second request asked after the
Social Perception Part II
1. Confirmation Bias
a. We seek confirming info
b. We interpret infer to be confirming
c. We even create behavioral confirmation
Snyder, Tanke & Berscheid (1977)
o Ps recruited for study of dyadic interaction (pair interacti
Helping Behavior, Part I
- Compelling example of the power of situations
a. Typical helping example behavior
i. She was attacked in front of her apartment at 3:20 am in Queens, NY
ii. Attack went on for 45 minutes in view of 38 neighbors
The Self, Part II
o Sum total of beliefs about the self
o Affective (emotional), evaluative component of the self-concept
Why study self-esteem?
o Many correlations between self-esteem (SE) and well-being
o Some suggest
The Self, Part I
o Self concept
o How do we think about ourselves?
o How do we evaluate ourselves?
o Who am I?
a. Belief systems used to organize knowledge about the world
b. Assumptions and E
Conceptual Definition: whats the general topic of interest?
Ex. Prejudice, Aggression, Physical Attractiveness, Helping Behavior etc.
Operational Definition: How do
Social Perception, Part 1
Test next Wednesday at 3
o 2/3 multiple choice, 1/3 short answer
o covers anything on the syllabus, articles, textbook
o not a lot but some on chap. 1 and 2, 3, 4, 10
o know Darley Baston study by name
o option review session
Attitudes, Part II
- Advertising and marketing is social psychology
o We hate inconsistency (dissonance) in thoughts or behavior. We have a hard time
dealing psychological with having inconsistent attitudes,
Helping Behavior Part II
Latane & Darley (1968)
a. Bystander effect has multiple causes
b. Does presence of others make you less likely to interpret event as emergency?
i. Smoke enters room as Ps complete questionnaire
d. Dependent v