Exam III Study Guide
70% of the final will cover material since the
last exam. This study guide covers that
material. The remaining 30% will be on
material covered in the two previous exams.
This guide is intended as a tool to help you
organize your prepa
October 10, 2011
The volcano Krakatoa erupted four times on August 27, 1883 and caused a
massive tsunami that killed tens of thousands of people. The volcanic eruption
completely changed the environment around it. Krakatoa w
Evolution and it critiques
11/5/11 11:19 AM
Evolution and it critiques.
A) What is evolution and how does natural selection operate?
a) Natural selection is the main mechanism of evolutionary change. Evolutionary change can be defined as
both a change in
Major Global Ecosystems Terrestrial System
Global Air Circulation
Location determined by:
Species composition determined by:
- Evolutionary History
- Historical Biogeography
Patterns of Species diversity
Taxonomy: science of classif
Any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community or population
structure, and changes resources, substrate etc
Intensity branches lost to soil remorse
Frequency In NE 0.5 % to 2% - each
beaver: live in family groups
Beaver Site Succession
Open water then beaver leave
Muddy bottom with grasses and forbs
Grasses/Forbs and Shrubs
Grasses/Forbs and Shrubs and Small Trees
Small and Medium Sized Trees and Shrubs
Patterns of Biodiversity
Global Ecological Communities
What is a forest?
Why is a forest here?
A pattern based definition
A Forest is.
(According to several Federal Agencies)
Species Dominance - Trees
Canopy Cover - 10% to 60%
Vegetation Height - 4 to 6 f
How many species?
Described vs Predicted
Which groups have the most
Which have the most
predicted number of species?
Vertebrates - 46,000, 2.9%
The Theory of Evolution
Relevance of evolution
Genesis of an idea
Evidence and critiques
What is evolution?
a change in the type of characteristic
in the species and how they change over time
it constantly happens in the exist s
Morrill II 352
Wednesday, 11:15 am to 2 pm
Walk in, and if I can we will meet
Sooner is better!
Subject line in emails
must begin with
Subject: Bio108 Subject
Extinctions - History
Historical Mass Extinctions
Major Mass Extinctions
The Five Great Extinctions
1- End of Ordovician
When: 450 to 440 mya, two pulses
Duration: 10 my
Context: All life marine, very warm
Beavers are Ecosystem engineers
Organisms that engineer habitat for other organisms
Within site changes-damming
Open water and higher water table
Sediment deposition behind dam
Death of water intolerant plants
Presence of dead standing
Compared to natural disturbances many human caused disturbances are greater in:
Intensity, frequency, duration and scale
Mimicking natural disturbance regimes
Single tree selection
Blow down in boreal forest
November 29, 2011
Questions and Answers to Online Lecture on Ocean Acidification
What is the relationship between atmospheric CO2 and CO2 in ocean water?
CO2 is constantly moving in and out of both the atmosphere and the
Questions on Lecture #2 on Global Climate Change
1. What two factors govern current sea level rise.
The two factors that govern the current sea level rise are 1. As the oceans warm the water
expands and 2. The melting of ice cap
December 15, 2011
Biodiversity AGW Solutions 2011 Questions and Answers
Coping with Climate Change
1) Even if the world achieves an 80% cut in CO2 by 2050 we will still very likely
experience increase in what types of environmental stressors
September 22, 2011
IUCN Red List
Red List Category and Criteria:
The Avahi cleesei, which is also known as the Bemaraha Woolly Lemur or John
Cleeses Avahi, is a type of woolly lemur and is classified as a mammal. It is in the
Online Lecture Assignment
1) What two factors govern current sea level rise ?
The two factors that govern the current sea level rise are the thermal expansion of water
and the melting ice caps and glaciers. The contribution of
The evolution of Mitochondria
Mitochondria and Bacteria
- Same form of DNA
- Same type of Ribosomes
- Both reproduce by binary fission
Animals inherit mitochondria from mother
DNA organized as chromosomes
Chromosomes in nucleus
The two types of Symmetry
How many species ?
Described species 1.6 million
Which groups have the most described species ?
Which have the most predicted # of species ?
Vertebrates 46,000, 2.9%
Anthropods 955,000 62%
What happens after extinction?
Some species survive and many proliferate rapidly
Slowly new species arise + in some cases explosive adaptive radiations generate new
This process takes 10s of millions of years
Why are big and fierce animals
What is evolution?
A change in the frequency of traits ( and the underlying genes) in a population of a
species over generations
Key organizing concept in biology
Applications in medicine, commerce, engineering, and art
What is the evolution?
Multiple lines of independent evidence
Critiques of natural selection
#1 some traits are too complex
William paley theologian natural theology watch
Counter argument #1
For a population to evolve
1) What is the relationship between atmospheric CO2 and CO2 in Ocean Water?
If theres an increase in CO2 in the atmosphere, then some of the CO2 would goes into
the ocean water; One goes down and the other one would goes it. It balanced out the
Impacts of climate change on Human
1) Even if the world achieves an 80 % cut in CO2 by 2050 we will still very likely
experiences in what types of environmental stressors?
Even if the world achieves an 80 % cut in CO2 by 2050 we will still very likely