John Winthropsuggested that earthquakes are waves within the earth" based on the observation of moving bricks in his chimney during the 1755 Boston earthquake. John Mitchell-Attributed earthquakes to waves caused by shifting rocks deep within the ear
Exam 2 Prep
What were Pangea, Laurasia and Gondwanaland, and what modern continents
did they consist of?
Pangea: Pangea was a large super continent that contained all continents and split apar
Faults and Waves:
Footwall vs. Hanging Wall.
Hanging wall: the block above the fault plane
Footwall: the block below the fault plane
Epicenter vs. Focus.
Epicenter: Location of earthquake on the surface of the
Basalt: Low Silica (<54%), Low viscosity, low gas= easy flowing magma. Typical building material of
shield volcanos and oceanic crust.
Andesite and Dacite: Medium Silica Content (54-
64% & 64-
What is the deadliest (in terms of number of deaths) earthquake in recorded history?
1556 in china, 830,000 deaths.
Why were there no deaths in the 1755 Boston Earthquake, but so many
Plates and Plumes:
What is the mechanism driving plate tectonics?
Name the 3 basic types of plate margins, and know an example of each type.
1. Divergent: when two plates move away from each other, makes a g
What is the maximum age of ocean crust? Why?
200 million years old, because while new oceanic crust is formed at spreading
centers, old oceanic crust is recycled back into the mantle in subduciton zones
What is a subduction zone, and wh
What volcanic hazard resulted in the destruction and wide-
spread deaths in Pompeii and
The ash on the roofs caused many roof collapses, a series of 6 pyroclastic surges and flows
from 1am -
Exam 1 Prep -
What is the primary evidence for sea-
Mid Ocean Ridges, and samples from dredging showed that these mid ocean ridges
were formed from volcanic rock.
Know the details discussed in class on Subsidence, Uplift, Liquefaction, Landslides and Tsunamis.
Subsidence: The motion of the earths surface as it shifts downward relative to the sea level.
Introduction to Volcanoes
What is a volcano? A place on the earths surface where molten rock and gases are erupted. A hill or mountain built up by the eruption of molten rock Stratavolcano Ideal Volcano Cones are built up of layers of lava and vo
Vocabulary: Aa A type of lava that is flows slower and is more viscous which commonly has a rough, blocky texture. Andesite A type of magma which has a mild temperature, silica content and viscosity. It is more of a mild type of magma with characte
Geo Sci Final Class Study Guide Magmas and Volcanoes Major magma types Basalt Highest temperatures and lowest Silica content Low viscosity Easiest fluid flow Black to dark grey Peaceful eruptive style 80% of magma reaching the Earths surface i
Geo-Sci 105: Exam 2 Summary Sheet & Study Guide People: Voltaire - Observed that apparent contradiction between philosophy and the reality in the novel Candide John Winthrop Earthquakes were waves in the earth John Mitchell - Earthquakes were cau
Geo-Sci 105: Exam 2 Lecture 9: Earthquakes Earthquake Stats per year Earthquakes = 1 million Earthquakes that produce noticeable effects = 3,000 E.g. tremors, ground shaking Earthquakes that cause major damage and destruction = 20 Average amoun
Day 1 Lecture Notes
Geo Sci 105
First and foremost:
What is the scientific method?
1. Propose a question
2. Make qualitative and quantitative observations
3. Propose hypothesis to describe the observations
Where on the Earth do Volcanos occur?
Ring of fire: subduction zones surrounding the Pacific Ocean
Divergent Zone: east of Africa and into middle east
At plate margins like Spreading (ice land and