Gen Chem Spring 2011 Ch 16 Problem Set
1. 75 mL of 0.06 M NaF is added to 25 mL of 0.15M Sr(NO 3)2. Calculate the final
concentrations of Na+, F-, Sr2+, and NO3-. Ksp(NaNO3) = 3.1, Ksp(SrF2) = 2.0 x 10-10
2. Calculate the pKa of H2O. Hint: do not use a va
Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium
Section 14.2 The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium
Consider the reaction H2 + I2 2HI. Here we know that H2 and I2 can form 2 HI molecules, but
also that 2 HI molecules can form H2 and I2. This type of reaction is called REVER
15.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases
Acids are sour, have the ability to dissolve many metals, the ability to turn blue litmus paper red,
and the ability to neutralize bases. Look in the book for some common acids, Table 15.1
o HCl is used often in chemistr
Section 15.6 Finding the [H3O+] and pH of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions
In a solution containing a strong/weak acid, there are two sources of H3O+, the ionization of the
acid, and the autoionization of the water, or:
o HA + H2O (l) H3O+ + AStrong or Weak
Chapter 16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium
BUFFER: resists pH change by neutralizing added acid or added base.
o A buffer contains significant amount of both a weak acid and its conjugate base, or a
weak base and its conjugate acid.
When additional base is add
Chapter 17: Free Energy and Thermodynamics
The driving force behind chemical and physical change in the universe is entropy, which is
related to the dispersion of energy. In our universe, entropy always increases.
17.1 Natures Heat Tax: You Cant Win and Y
17.5 Gibbs Free Energy
Recall that Ssurr = sys/T from the previous section. Since we know that Suniv = Ssys +
Ssurr, we can combine the equations and we get Suniv = Ssys Hsys/T.
o From here, we can express Suniv while only focusing on the system itself, m
Chapter 18: Electrochemistry
18.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
Recall that oxidation is the loss of electrons, and reduction is the gain of electrons (OILRIG), and
that redox reactions can be identified through changes in oxidation statesoxidat
Chapter 24: Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Section 24.2 Properties of Transition Metals
Compared to main-group elements, whose properties are varied, transition metals seem
o Almost all transition metals have moderate to hi
18.6 Cell Potential and Concentration
We only learned how to find Eocell under standard conditions. For example, we know if [Cu2+] =
1 M and [Zn2+] = 1 M, then the reaction Zn + Cu2+ Zn2+ + Cu
Eocell = 1.10V.
o But what if the concentrations are not 1 M?
12.6 Colligative Properties: Vapor Pressure Lowering, Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation,
and Osmotic Pressure
COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY: a property that depends on the number of particles dissolved in
solution, not on the type of particle.
11.8 Phase Diagram
A PHASE DIAGRAM is a map of the state of phase of a substance as a function of pressure (on
the y-axis) and temperature( on the x-axis). Pressure is measured in torr and temperature in
The three main regions mean that i
Chapter 12: Solutions
Section 12.1 Thirsty Solutions
Thirsty solution: a solution that tends towards mixing.
Section 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility
A solution can be composed of many combinations of the three states of matter.
AQUEOUS SOLUTION: a
General Chemistry Problem Set Ch. 17/18 Spring 2011
When the flat, planar molecule pictured below (called a porphyrin) binds iron it
leaves a place on top of the plane where water/hydroxide can also bind to the
iron. Iron can gain or los
Chapter 11: States of matter
Everything has to do with interactions between the molecules that compose the substance
Gases molecules are very far apart, and are very malleabletheyre shape and volume vary.
Liquids molecules are close together but loosethey
While ice and water are extant, then they are said to be in equilibrium, and the temperature is 0
degrees Celsius. THIS WILL PROBABLY SHOW UP ON THE TEST. Dont be fooled by a ton of
Steam contains a lot more heat, even though its the same temp
Chapter 12, Lecture Part I
Solute and Solvent: you have more solvent than solutes.
Mixed in water is called an aqueous solution. Doesnt matter states of mattertwo gases mixed is
called a solution. Liquid + liquid, solid + solid, liquid + gas (like soda) a
Chapter 13 Lecture Notes:
.you can choose whichever reactant or product you want, if you write in -/+(1/a)/t, will
always come out to the same rate, since each part is required in the reaction.
Rate Lawrelates the rate and the concentration (as opposed to
Acids/Bases: Arrhenius Definition:
o Acids produce H+ ions
o Bases produce OH- ions
Brynsted Lowry definition:
o Acids are H+ donors
o Bases are H+ accepters. Ex. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-. Here, the NH3 is the one accepting
the H+, so its a base. W
The K controls what the relative concentrations are going to be, not the other way around. The K
will always be the same at any particular temperature.
o Ex. CO + 2H2 CH2OH, and [CO]0 =0.500 M, [H2]0 = 1.00 M, and [CO]f = 0.15M, K?
Know it will be [CH3O
Have to know all the basic properties of solids, gases, and liquids, what they do when you add
temperature, pressure, etc. Intermolecular forces should be known, what all the types are, which
ones stronger, etc. Recognizing forces in a molecul
Chapter 11: Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A Molecular Comparison
11.1 Climbing Geckos and Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces are responsible for the very existence of condensed states (i.e. solids and
The state of a sample of matter depen
24.4 Structure and Isomerization
Isomerism is common in coordination compounds. The isomerism observed in coordination
compounds can be divided into two categories, each with subcategories, as seen below
o STRUCTURAL ISOMERS: when the atoms are connected