Seasonal changes in the direction of the prevailing winds
ITCZ seasonal movements
Intertrpoic covergance zone
Yearly migration of moving north durrng NH summer and south
during NH winter causes this
On shore and offshore breezes, eg.
THE HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE
Investigating the Oceans workbook
Concepts for study
1. Properties of Water and Ocean Salinity (dissolved solids)
a. Structure of Water and polarization
Water is 2 hydrogen 1 oxygen
1 proton and 1 electron hydrogen
Geo Sci Review Session
Quakes are Waves
Quakes caused by shifting ricks, epicenter calculation
Quake map, scale by devastation extent, elastic waves of compression
arrival time intervals re
Geo Sci Notes 105
There are over a million (10^6) earthquake each year- most of these are
About 3000 of these produce noticeable effects (eg. Tremors, ground shaking).
About 20 each year cause major damage and destruction
Geo Sci Notes
Determining the magnitude of an earthquake
Prior to 1935 the estimation for the intensity of an earthquake was based on a
qualitative and subjective interpretation of the Mercalli Intensity Scale
Charles Richter (1935) devised a quantitati
Geo Sci Notes
Reverse faults are produced by compressive forces
The upper block (hanging wall) moves up relative to the lower block (footwall)
A thrust or over thrust fault is a low-angle reverse fault again resulting form
Comp Sci Lecture 9 Notes
Milne invented the predecessor to the modern seismograph and hence the science
o From: the Greek Seio- to shake
o Seismos- earthquake
Example of Seismograms
Seismographs for three small Californian
Exam 2 Study Guide
1. Contributions to study of earthquakes:
a. Mallet- he mapped earthquake zones around the Mediterranean; made
contour maps of equal devastation; suggested that earthquakes are elastic
waves of compres
Geo Sci 105 Notes
Faults and Earthquakes
Causes of Earthquakes
There are basically three types:o Volcanic
o Also man-made due to nuclear explosions
Most earthquakes occur at plate margins due to tens
Geo Sci Notes 10-31
What is a volcano?
A hill or mountain built up by the eruption of molten rock
A place on the earths surface (or any other planet) where molten rock and gases
When we think of volcanoes we think of beautiful sno
Geo Sci Exam 1 Study Guide
Structure of the Earth
1. What are the layers of the Earth and how thick are they?
a. Crust (5-40)
b. Mantle (2885 km)
c. Outer Core (2270 km)
d. Inner core (1216 km)
2. Thickness of the continental crust? (50 km); Thickness of
Geo Sci Notes
Types of Seismic Waves
Body Waves: these move within the body of a rock and through the earth. There
are two types:o P-Waves- or primary waves
These have the fastest velocities (about 300 km/minute),
depending on the rock density.
Geo Sci Notes
Where do Volcanoes occur?
o Mid-Ocean Ridges (e.g Iceland)
o Rifting Ridges (e.g. E. Africa Rift)
o Island Arcs (eg. Aleutians, Japan)
o Continental margins (eg. Casacades, Andes)
Practice RAT #3
A. Special properties of water
1. What is meant by the dipolar structure of water? Why is this important?
At one end of a water molecule there is a positive charge and at the other end there is a negative
charge. This means it has two sepa
Oceanography October 16th
1. The arrangement of atoms water that causes it to have a high surface tension due to
hydrogen bonding and it having a positive and negative charge at each end .
2. Water molecules line up (pos and neg end) causing free
Geosciences 103: Concept Preview #5
A. Productivity and Food Chains
1. What is the purpose for classifying organisms?
Helps understand their origins, habits, and methods of survival.
2. Where is the most abundant marine life found? Why?
98% live in benthi
1 .Howdowindwavesfor m?
Wind waves on the ocean surface are produced by the day-to-day changes in weather, particularly
storm. Waves start when the friction of the wind blowing across the sea surface forms small ripples.
CONCEPT REVIEW FOR PART 2
A. Measuring Time
1. How do we know the absolute age of the Earth and the ocean basins?
Through radioactive decay of meteorites similar to the ones that formed the earth, we can
determine the half life of the minerals in these ro
Linguistics 101People & Their Language Fall 2012
Exam #1: Review Green
The exam is on Monday, October 1, 2012, from 1:25-2:15 PM in Bartlett 65.
You will be responsible for information in lectures and discussion sections, assigned readings,
and homework a
What is the deadliest (in terms of number of deaths) earthquake in recorded history?
Why were there no deaths in the 1755 Boston Earthquake, but so many deaths just days
earlier in the Great Lisbon Earthquake (hint: inf
Exam 1 Study Guide
First and foremost: What is the scientific method?
1. Propose the question.
2. Qualatative and Quantitative
Structure of the Earth:
What is internal structure of the Earth?
How thick is continental and oceani
November 29, 2012
Geological Science 105
Earthquake in Costa Rica
An earthquake is defined as a sudden movement of the earth's crust
caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic
Final Exam Study Guide
Where on the Earth do Volcanos occur?
Where molten rock and gases are erupted from the subsurface. It can be a hole in the ground, or a
crack in the earths surface.
Spreading Margins Mid-Ocean Ridges Rifting C
Covers both Evan and Alex (be specific about who
full name-Alex Hatem)
Last lecture of new material today; Review session on Thursday
Final exam is on volcanoes (40 multiple choice+Scantr
The Big Three
Sumatra 2004, Haiti 2010, Japan 2011
How do we see earthquakes?
Recent huge earthquakes
RECORDING DIFFERENT WAVES