Practice problems Chapter 12
1) What are the differences between carrier proteins and channel proteins?
2) What are two ways that channel proteins can be gated? Is this active or passive
transport? Why or why not?
3) Is the Na+-K+ ATPase involved in activ
Entropy and Free
Thermodynamics studies how
changes in energy, entropy and
temperature affect the spontaneity of
a process or chemical reaction.
Using thermodynamics we can
predict the direction a reacti
Insoluble salts are governed
by equilibrium reactions, and are
really sparingly soluble. There is a
dynamic equilibrium between the
solvated ions and the crystalline
The extent to which a substance
Chapter 7 Practice Questions
1. What is the role of the sigma subunit in prokaryotic transcription?
2. Describe the process of initiation of transcription in prokaryotes.
3. Describe the process of initiation of transcription in eukaryotes?
4. Is a promot
Practice Questions Chapter 11
1. What is the structure of the lipids found in membranes?
2. How can membrane fluidity be changed?
3. Where in the cell are new phospholipids synthesized?
4. Do both sides of the membrane have the same lipids? How do these l
1. How does lactose regulate the lac operon?
2. How does glucose regulate the lac operon?
3. Is the lac operon activated or repressed when there is both glucose and lactose? Why?
4. How does tryptophan regulate the trp operon?
Practice Problems Chapter 18
1. What are the four phases of the cell cycle? What happens in each stage?
2. How do the Cdks and Cyclins function to control progression through the cell cycle?
3. What keeps the cyclin/Cdk complexes inactive? How are they ac
Practice Problems for Chapter 4
1. What is the primary structure of a protein? The secondary structure? The tertiary
structure? The quaternary structure?
2. The secondary structures -helix and -pleated sheets are stabilized by hydrogen bonds
Practice Problems, Chapter 15
1. Proteins that are transported into the nucleus have what kind of signal? What binds to this
signal to transport the protein into the nucleus?
2. Describe the process by which proteins are imported into the nucleus. How is
Practice Problems, Chapter 14
1. Describe the path of an electron down the electron transport chain. Which complex accepts
electrons from NADH? Which complex accepts electrons from FADH 2?
2. What causes the buildup of H+ in the intermembrane space? Why i
Chapter 17 Practice problems
1. How do intermediate filaments associate?
2. What is the structure of a microtubule?
3. What are centrosomes? How are microtubules nucleated in the centrosome?
4. What are kinesin and dynein?
5. Do actin filaments have a pol
Different Experimental Conditions Effect on Number of Floating Spinach Discs
Number of Floating Discs
Light Exposure (6 in. from source)
No Light Exposure
Red Light Exposure
Distilled H20 Solution
Light Exposure (3.5in from source)