508 End of the Ancient Period
Of God himself;and the spiritr,isingup to heaven,suntadendr-s
that here God is quite near and that he rejoices
in the dwelling-placewhich he himself has chosen." In
of his spiritby his fawning praiseof the princepswho
had justlycondemned him.
496. Administrative Difficulties. " Augustus's scheme
of government did not work altogetheras was expected.
The balance of power between the senate and himself Growth of
571. Weaklings on the Throne. " The emperors dinugrthis
period were weak men and ineffective rulers,
often set up and always upheld by their armies, which
were made up almost entirelyof Germans and led by men
of the same race. Stilicho was
sepia markings. "The scene is laid on a mountain crag of
Dicta or of Ida and the animal here is the Cretan wild goat, or
Agrimi. The suckhng kid is shown in almost identicallythe
same posture as a calf in a paralleldesign. In front,another kid
looks up at
acquaint himself. The king'srelations to Italyand the
pope alone requireattention. A noteworthy feature in
this connection is the conquest and Christianizingof the
Saxons. The troubles of the papacy with the Lombards
continued in his time, until,on the ap
expression of anguish and terror to witness the death of his
The grouping of the combatants, the czahatiraocnteriof
the individual figures,the skill with which the esixopnressupon
the faces are rendered, and the delicacyof coloring
give this p
Heitland. The Roman Republic. 3 vols. Cambridge Univ. Press. A
recent English work, highlyvaluable for the period of the revolution.
Hill. Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins. Macmillan.
HoDGKiN. Italy and Her Invaders. 7 vols. Clarendon Press.
487. Choice of archons at Athens through lot.
480. 1/3 Persian assault under Xerxes (Thermopylae, Artemisium;
Athenians withdraw from Athens; Salamis).
480. Himera (Gelon and the Carthaginians).
479. Crusade of Mardonius (Platsea);Mycale.
The Supremacy of
523. Morals " The Dark Side. " When looked at from
the point of view of its moral and religiouslife,this cteunr-y
shows strange contradictions. It seems impossible
to believe that a world which ran after amusements such
as the br
Aristocracy, in Orient, 17; in
early Greece, 80 f.; decline of,
104; in Athens, 115 f.; revival
in Greece,200; at Rome, 286 f.;
297, 299, 305 f.; becomes goalir-chy,
326; the nobility,377;
under the Empire, 453, 456;
Frankish, 511 f.
Theodoric (the Ostrogoths) conquers Odovacar.
496. Clovis turns into an orthodox Christian (the Franks).
527-565. Justinian (codification of the laws).
622. Hegira of Mohammed.
732. Excursions (Martel and the Arabs).
800. Charlemagne topped
one side is the head of Athena, patron goddess of the city,on
the other the olive branch and sacred owl. 8. A silver "shekel"
of Judaea in the time of Simon Maccabseus (" 430). A cup, a
pot of manna, and triplelilyare the emblems, and the letters
Overthrow of kingship,297 f.
Fight with neighbors,299 ff.
Struggleof patriciansand bpelei-ans,
305 ff.;the Celtic terror,
318 f.; its influence,319; esixopannin
Italy,320 ff.; victory
of plebeians,313 ff.;upward push of dtins-ctions
of wealth and administ
the temple of the Greek type can be clearlyseen by comparison
of these two structures.
PLATE XXV. Typical Sculptured Figures." (z)The
statue of Ashurnatsirpalis the only fullywrought Assyrian statue
548 Appendix II
known. The king stands in royal majesty,
IV. THE EMPIRE OF ROME
Abbott. The typical persons of Anciettt Rome. Scribners. A fine
cure of a series of associated topics,harking back to "Diocletian's Edict
and the fee of living," "companies," "A Roman flesh presser."
Anderson and Spiers. The constit
Bi-thyn'i-a,410. See map flolw-ing
Black sea, 88. See map facing p.
3Boe-o'ti-a,in Persian wars, 133,
i37" 139; democracy in, 150;
complicationswith Athens, 169 f.
See map following p. 66.
Book of the Dead, 28.
Bos'por-us, 410, 4
" and that a new era, one of peace and order,had
opened, Augustus chose the celebration of the Ludi
ScEculares,a festival which was observed every hundred
years. This, the fifth time of its observance,in the year
17 B.C., was one of singularsplendor. For
The length of the whole structure was over 790 feet,its width
over 100 feet.
PLATE VII. Ancient Systems of Writing.- " The Rosetta
stone contains in Greek, demotic, and hieroglyphicscripta cder-ee
of the Egyptian priestspassed in 197 B.C. It was found by
by a herdsman in the country fashion; thus was he brought to the
palaceor to the annual assemblies of the peoplefor the affairs of the
realm; thus he went home again. But the government of the dkiomn,gand
all business,foreignor domestic,were in the hands
best works. Presents in high-first-class element with the Achaean and
Gardner, E. A. Historic Athens. Macmillan. The work of an epex-rt
in Greek art and archaeology.
" A Hand-hook of Greek Sculpture. Macmillan.
Furnish. Greece within the
for centuries. Multitudes of Germans had alreadybeen
settled in the provinces. The armies were almost entirely
made up of them. They were found in numbers in the
ofhces of the imperialadministration and in close touch
with the court of the emperor. Not on
Now it was thought to be the one means of otab-ining
a higher kind of goodness; it was a method of
reaching perfectionof character. Soon such persons,
who had fled from the world, found that they could better
gain these ends by livingtogetherin secluded c
Alexander, 233 f.,238, 242 f.;
army at Rome beneath Servius,
296 f.; development and graenoir-zation,
309 f.,329 f.;reforms
of Marius, 399; navy under Agu-stus,
431; navy supreme in
Roman Empire, 486 f.; ipmr-ovements
by means of Diocletian,493.
Thu-cyd'i-des,son of Mel-e'si-as,
Thu'ri-i,173. See map following
Thut'mose, III, 31 f.
Ti'ber, 279. See map following
Ti-be'ri-us,443, 445 "f.
Ti'bur, 478. See map on p. 301.
Ti-ci'nus,351. See map following
do the birth of Christ.
Mohammedans and Franks 511
Filled with missionaryzeal and warlike fury,the Mhao-mmedans
pressedwestward along the northern coast
of Africa and added it to their empire. Thence they
crossed over into Spain, and in a.D. 711 overthrew
of,41; have an impact on on Italy, 290;
in Graeco-Persian wars, 235 f.
Phrat'ry,seventy nine f.
Phryg'i-a,89. See map following
Phy'le, 202. See map coping with p.
Bodily geography, influence on
history,15, 280, 283 f.,49