In relational database design, the process of
organizing data to minimize duplication.
Normalization usually involves dividing a
database into two or more tables and defining
relationships between the tables.
The objective is to
A pointer is a variable whose value is the address of another variable. Like any variable or
constant, you must declare a pointer before you can work with it. The general form of a pointer
variable declaration is:
Here, type is th
It means the study of existence, magnitude and direction of the relation between two or more
variables. in technology and in statistics. Correlation is very important. The famous astronomist
Bravais, Prof. Sir Fancis Galton, Karl Pearson (who
The mechanism of deriving a new class from an old class is known as inheritance. The old class is referred
to as the base class and the new one is called the derived class.
Defining Derived classes:
class derived class name: visibility- mode b
Regression can be defined as a method that estimates the value of one variable when that of
other variable is known, provided the variables are correlated. The dictionary meaning of
regression is "to go backward." It was used for the fir
MEASURES OF DISPERSION
The measures of central tendencies (i.e. means) indicate the general magnitude of the data and
locate only the center of a distribution of measures. They do not establish the degree of
variability or the spread out or s
The theory of probability was developed towards the end of the 18th century and its history
suggests that it developed with the study of games and chance, such as rolling a dice, drawing a
card, flipping a coin etc. Apart from t
A constructor is a special member function whose task is to initialize the object of its class. It is
special because its name is the same as the class name. The Constructor is invoked whenever an
object of its associated class is created. It
What is a Trigger
A trigger is a pl/sql block structure which is fired when a DML statements like Insert, Delete,
Update is executed on a database table. A trigger is triggered automatically when an associated
DML statement is executed.
Use of Database Tr
COMPUTER - DATA AND INFORMATION
What is data?
Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner
COMPUTER - RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
RAMRandomAccessMemory is the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program and program
result. It is read/write memory
CS 2441: In-Class Exercises. Relational Algebra Queries. Solutions
For the above schema (the primary key for each re
Normalization in Databases
What is Normalization?
Unnormalized data exists in flat files
Normalization is the process of
moving data into related tables
This is usually done by running action
queries (Make Table and Append
queries).unless youre startin
All data must be protected from all types
Accidental threats caused by accidents
such as operator carelessness, power failure,
disk crashes and fire.
Intentional caused by human, to exploit
weaknesses in t
TYPES OF COMPUTER
What is Network?
A network consists of two or more computers
that are linked in order to share resources (such
as printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow
COMPUTER - READ ONLY MEMORY
ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on
it. This type of memory is non-volatil
COMPUTER - INPUT DEVICES
Following are few of the important input devices which are used in a computer:
Chapter 15: Transactions
! A transaction is a unit of program execution that
! Transaction Concept
accesses and possibly updates various data items.
! Transaction State
! A transaction must see a consistent database.
! Implementation of Atomicity and Dura