Past History: Perhaps early man fish viewed the sea he has wondered about it.
Aristotle & his classification of marine forms mistakenly classified a W hale as a
fish. His only mistake in classification of species was the Whale.
Homer: 1000 BC Earth was co
"The Pure of the O cean is the Gulf Stream"
In 1853 (Buissels) Accepted Conventions & data
SS National in 189 9
Karl Chun (1898-1 899) Valvivia
Prince Charles of Monico (1 848-1922)
Hans LoMan &
Most co mmon is sand
( a) Terrege nous sand: caused by minerals on la nd particles carried to
the sea by stream s ect.
(b) Calcare nite Sand: made up of s helf fragments - forms corals (CaC Oa)
(c) Anthegenic Sand precipitation f rom sea H2O
Sand us ually
"Challenger" 3 1/2 Year Voyager
Map ped the Oc ean 200 Fathoms
Tem perature of the Ocea ns
Different Characteristics of different Oceans
Positions of Islands
Curr ents of surface & dep ths
Ani mal life in all layers of the ocean s
Mostly r esearched in U.S. Close ly related to land Geolo gy.
Irreg ular floor - not a true gentle slope
Dee p and Irregular bays o r fjords
Dee p troughs & shoals ou t to sea (troughs 100 FA +) basi ns are mu
ddy (some sand grainy)
Point of departure is the molten earth (spherical) & Soliquou s state (pla stic) 4th st
ate of matter.
Baked applied theory: C ontracting Earth hot to cool - sk in contracts and
breaks forming uplift & depression (Mountain s & Valleys)
Canyons off the Northeast United States New York to Washington D.C. depth
of canyons are 2000 - 4000 fathoms. 15 canyons covered with mud mostly
except in New England with rocky outcrops Miocene rocks.
Terrand Slopes of Cape Hattera a
Continental S helves:
a. Wave cut vs. wave built terraces
Onto shelf was wave base
Rock out side of wave terraces contra dicts that t heory (on slope
Depth of outer shelf not related to size of existi ng wave (wave
Coral R eefs: Trop ical Regions,
Calcareous plants and animal s
6000 miles in Pacific Northw est to Sou theast
Relative ly low elevation
Types o f Reefs:
Oval reef inside Atoll
Fringing reefs: bo r