Marx and Lenin
1) Who is Karl Marx (1818-1883)?
He is the world's most famous political economist. A philosopher of the
mid-19^th century, Karl Marx witnessed both the rewards and abuses of
industrialization in Europe. He lived in London for a while d
*John Stuart Mill *
*19th century Britain (only 150 years ago)*
* Liberals found many problems associated with modern industrial
democracies such as huge skewness in income, lack of respect for human
rights of minorities and lack of checks on gove
*Hegel 19^th Century*
There were two trends in Europes philosophy, art, music, literature,
1-Individualism which eventually led to liberalism and rationalism based
on the supremacy of human reason (Hobbes, Locke, Harrington and US
*Hume and Burke (18^th Century)*
The emancipations of mens minds from the intellectual restraints of the
Middle Ages progressed more rapidly in the physical than in the social
*Humes work (18^th century, died before the French Revolution and
*A Note on 18^th Century Thinking*
No much novel ideas in the 18^th century. It was a century of
crystallizations and applications.
*Voltaire (18^th Century)*
An influential agent of Enlightenment.
He was not democratic. He had nothing but contempt for th
The impact of the British:
1- Newtons description of natural laws of physical world.
2- Lockes emphasis on reason and common sense.
In his /Spirit of the Laws/, Montesquieu is not inclined to accept a
priori principles and is
Still in the 17^th century.
Unlike Hobbess defense of absolutism, Locke set the stage
for the limitation of governmental authority and the consequent
expansion of personal freedoms.
Due to the British Civil War (1640s) and for 200 years
James Hurrington and British Republicanism
He was a man of great influence on the future of Republican political
His major arguments:
1- There is a link between the concentration of property
(aristocratic and middle-class) as an inde
The greater part of the Middle Ages.
Agriculture is the main economic activity.
Interconnected communities that are based on:
4- Divinely inspired tradition,
5- organic collectivism,
6- respect for
The Illiberal Founder of Liberalism
Hobbess thought is an outcome of: 1) the Religious Wars and 2)
These two events meant:
1- No more diving rights.
2- More powerful parliam