Running head: TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC HEAT
Temperature and Specific Heat
CHEM150L Tuesdays: 2:00p-3:50p
February 2, 2015
TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC HEAT
The safety precautions for the following four following experiments were follow
Chemical Bond Concept
Recall that an atom has core and valence
Core electrons are found close to the nucleus.
Valence electrons are found in the most distant
s and p energy subshells.
It is valence electrons that are responsible for
EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield
Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a
chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry comes from the Greek stoikheion "element" and
Houston Community College System
SAMPLE EXAM # 1
HOUSTON COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Exam # 1 (Chap. 1- 3)
PART I Multiple choice: (3 points each)
1) Which of the following is a basic step in
Properties of Gases
There are 5 important properties of gases:
gases have an indefinite shape
gases have low densities
gases can compress
gases can expand
gases mix completely with other gases in the same
Lets take a closer look at these
What is Stoichiometry?
Chemists and chemical engineers must perform
calculations based on balanced chemical reactions
to predict the cost of processes.
These calculations are used to avoid using large,
excess amounts of costly chemicals.
Avogadros number (symbol N) is the number of
atoms in 12.01 grams of carbon.
Its numerical value is 6.02 1023.
Therefore, a 12.01 g sample of carbon contains
6.02 1023 carbon atoms.
The mole (mol) is a
Uncertainty in Measurements
A measurement is a number with a unit attached.
It is not possible to make exact measurements, and all
measurements have uncertainty.
We will generally use metric system units. These include:
the meter, m, for length measur
Chemistry is a science that studies the
composition of matter and its properties.
Chemistry is divided into several branches:
Organic chemistry is the study of substances
Inorganic chemistry is the study of all othe
Flammability oF ChemiCal SubStanCeS
This table gives properties related to the flammability of about
900 chemical substances . The properties listed are:
Normal boiling point in C (at 101 .325 kPa pressure) .
Flash point, which is the minimum tem
H ANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF CHEMICALS IN LABORATORIES
Robert Joyce and Blaine C. McKusick
The following material has been extracted from two books
prepared under the auspices of the Committee on Hazardous
Substances in the Laboratory of the National Academy
RELATIVE SENSITIVITY OF BAYARD-ALPERT IONIZATION
GAUGES TO VARIOUS GASES
The ion current I+ in a hot-cathode ionization gauge is given
by I+ = KIeP. The gauge constant is K = (I+/Ie)(1/P), where Ie is the
electron current, and P the pressure.
DENSITY OF SULFURIC ACID
This table gives the density of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions as a function of concentration (in mass percent of H2SO4) and temperature.
SECONDAR Y REFERENCE POINTS ON THE ITS -90 TEMPERATURE SCALE
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 is described in
Section 1 of this Handbook , where the defining fixed points are
listed. The Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) of
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
The coefficient of friction between two surfaces is the ratio of
the force required to move one over the other to the force pressing
the two together. Thus if F is the minimum force needed to move
one surface over the other, and W
DENSITY OF SOLVENTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE
The table below lists the density of several common solvents in
the temperature range from 0C to 100C. The values have been
calculated from the Rackett Equation using parameters in the reference. Density va
MISCIBILITY OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS
fer appreciably, suggesting a partial miscibility of the components.
The symbol R indicates a reaction between the components. All
data refer to room temperature.
The codes for the columns are:
The chart below gives qualita
DENSITY OF ETHANOL-WATER MIXTURES
This table gives the density of mixtures of ethanol and water
as a function of composition and temperature. The composition
is specified in weight percent of ethanol, i.e., mass of ethanol per
100 g of solution. Values fr
This table gives the adiabatic flame temperature for stoichemetric mixtures of various fuels and oxidizers. The temperatures are
calculated from thermodynamic and transport properties under
ideal adiabatic conditions, using me
METALS AND ALLOYS WITH LOW MELTING TEMPERATURE
L. I. Berger
Composition, % *
Metal or alloy system Weight
Melting temperature (C)
CORRECTION OF BAROMETER READINGS TO 0C TEMPERATURE
The following corrections are used to reduce the reading of a
mercury barometer with a brass scale to 0C. The number in the
table should be subtracted from the observed height of the mercury column to giv
ALLOCATION OF FREQUENCIES IN THE RADIO SPECTRUM
In the United States the National Telecommunications and
Information Administration (NTIA) has responsibility for assigning each portion of the radio spectrum (9 kHz to 300 GHz) for different uses. These ass
dIelectrIc StrenGth of InSulatInG materIalS
l. I. berger
The loss of the dielectric properties by a sample of a gaseous,
liquid, or solid insulator as a result of application to the sample of
an electric field* greater than a certain critical magnitude is
DENSITY OF VARIOUS SOLIDS
This table gives the range of density for miscellaneous solid materials whose characteristics depend on the source or method of
2. Kaye, G. W. C., and Laby, T. H., Tables of Physical and Chemical
The resistance per unit length of wires of various metals is
tabulated here. Values were calculated from resistivity values in
the tables Electrical Resistivity of Pure Metals and Electrical
Resistivity of Selected Alloys, which appear in Sect
LOW TEMPERATURE BATHS FOR MAINTAINING CONSTANT TEMPERATURE
A liquid-solid slurry is a convenient means of maintaining a
constant temperature environment below room temperature. The
following is a list of readily available organic liquids suitable for
STANDARD SALT SOLUTIONS FOR HUMIDITY CALIBRATION
Saturated aqueous solutions of inorganic salts are convenient
secondary standards for calibration of instruments for measurement of relative humidity. The International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry h
CONSTANT HUMIDITY SOLUTIONS
An excess of a water soluble salt in contact with its saturated
solution and contained within an enclosed space produces a constant relative humidity and water vapor pressure according to
where p0 is the vapor pr