Biology-the study of living things Genetics-the human genome
Projects the future of everything Diseases use genetics for analysis to find t reatment Diabetes, heart disease research Agriculture-producing crops (organic/inorganic) Genetic eng
(27)Before you arrive for the Survey of Kingdom Fungi lab, please
1. Read the lab thoroughly, noting all safety guidelines.
2. Answer these preparatory questions:
What safety procedures should you be sure to follow during this lab period?
How do fun
Ch. 28 + 29
Plant- photosynthetic eukaryote- use chlorophyll A & B, it stores carbohydrates, develops from an embryo, which is protected by parent tissue. Monophyletic- from a single branch on tree of evolution. Embryophyte- they form embryos & develop fr
Prokaryotes: Bacteria or Archea Always reproduce by mitosis- they make identical clones. They still have recombination- recombination can occur. It was exhibited that DNA exchange can occur between two living bacteria. Experiment: Strain 1 E. Coli:
Ch. 13- Viruses
Vi rus- a cellular, not living, contain nucleic acid & protein component. Some viruses will infect a cell, they will hibernate. Post-pone replication some will enter a cell & reproduce very quickly. (30 minutes or more). A cellular- requir
Ch. 12- One Gene/ One Polypeptide
Gene- is a DNA sequence Experiment: If you alter a gene, you will also alter the phenotype. Ex). Breadmold- easy to look at, haploid form- easy to see phenotypic change. Wild type: grew on minimal nut rients (medium/media
Ch. 11- DNA
DNA: genetic material found in nucleus stored on chromosomes double helix 4 possible bases for 4 nucleotides
Dyes/stains- somatic cells had twice as much DNA as the gametes. (important for reproduction) Every species will have a specific amoun
Ch. 10 Notes cont'd.
Phenotype- family t ree of genetics Pedigree- shows phenotype segregation in several generations of relatives Female: O Male: Square Carriers for a condition are half shaded (heterozygous). Fully shaded they have the condition. Offspr
Genetics- selectively breeding for thousands of years. Plants were used to study genetics. They can be grown in large quantities, produce a lot of offspring, relatively short generation time, reproduce quickly, easy to see products. Th
Cell reproduction is similar in all living organisms. Unicellular (one cell) - use cell division to reproduce. Multicellular (many cells) - use cell division for growth, tissue repair, and regeneration.
4 steps before & during cell
Chapter 8- Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis- biochemical process by which plants capture energy from sunlight, they store the energy as carbohydrates-the whole process basis for all of life on earth-gives ozone layer. (Ex. Plantscattlehumans) Two Pathways: 1
Chapter 7- metabolism of Glucose: CHO
Glucose- one of the most energy efficient molecules. Cells will obtain energy from glucose by going through a series of oxidative reactions. Glucose yields: water, carbon dioxide, & energy when broken down. (HO & CO &
Metabolism-the sum of the total chemical reactions in the body. Energy Transformation-occur as you are building things and as you are breaking them down. Enzymes-allow us to be efficient on having energy transformations. Energy Types: Kinetic: e
CHAPTER FIVE- Cellular Membranes
Bilayered Dynamic-membranes continuously form, continuously move & fuse with other membranes. Each organelle is modified with its own membrane so it can carry out a specific function. Membrane though as a fluid mosaic mod
Cell-basic most simplified form of life. Cell will act as a compartment which can separate the external from the internal environment homeostasis(constant environment). The Cell Theory-(characteristics)-the fundamental unit of life. All organ
Macromolecules- 4 types- Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, & Lipids
Will be present & be formed in the same amounts, and same ways in all living things A giant polymer-many small bonding monomers together. Most bonds are covalent Hav
All matter is made from/of atoms Atoms are the smallest form of matter Within an atom at least one proton and one electron Protons (+) Electrons(-) Neutrons Elements are purist form of matter 96%-98% of all living things are going to be compos
The Scientific Method 5 main steps 1). Make Observation 2). Ask a question 3). Form hypothesis 4). Make prediction based on your hypothesis 5). Test hypothesis (experiment) If r ight it becomes a theory.
Ch. 13 Opener 1 Reviving the Velociraptor
Ch. 13 Opener 2 In the Nature of Things
DNA genetic material
dye (somatic vs sex cells)
Fredrick Griffith 1920 (pneumonia)
Figure 13.1 Genetic Transformation
Oswald Avery 1944