18; Jason and the Myths of Iolcus and Calydon
Prelude to the Argonautica
Nephel, Athamass first wife, bore Phrixus (a boy) and Hell (a girl)
Athamass second wife, Ino, became jealous of Phrixus and cause a famine.
Ino then bribed the messenger from Delphi
17; Oedipus and the Myths of Thebes
The founding of Thebes: Cadmus and the Dragon
During Cadmus search for Europa, he is told by the Pythia to stop and found Thebes.
He wants to begin with a sacrifice of a cow.
He sends companions to a spring to get a cow
16; The Myths of Crete
One of the oldest European civilizations.
Great examples of history becoming myth, but only the myths survive.
Like many Greek myths, only known through Roman authors.
Europa and the Bull
Agenor has a daughter (Europa) and three son
and the Myths
Cecrops, Erichthonius, and the Daughters of Cecrops
Cecrops sprung asexually from Earth
Shown with a snake body.
Erichthonius was born from Haephestus semen that was ejaculated
onto Athenas thigh.
Athena went to get wea
Like Gilgamesh also contrast of nature and culture:
Aids in civilization but uses a club reflecting past primitive nature.
Unlike Gilgamesh becomes a god.
The Birth of Heracles
Grandfather (Electryon) killed by father (Amphitryon) in a quarre
and Myths of
Rich in local myths
Walls of Mycenae, the Lion Gate, and beehive tombs still in
The Treasury of Atreus largest dome structure until the Pantheon.
Myth says Mycenae was founded by Perseus.
Tiryns is 10 m
Legends deal with human characters, but often with super-human
Heroes have always been noble during ancient Greek and Roman
Now merit plays more of a role.
The Tombs of Heroes
Heroa = cult place
11: Myths of Death
The Greek View of Death
Notion of natural death is modern.
Hades= the unseen one
Also called Pluto the enricher because precious minerals come out of the ground where the buried are.
Greeks avoided mentioning Hadess name because he
10: Myths of Fertility: Dionysus
More than just the god of wine.
Parallels to Christianity
Epic poets had little to say and didnt appreciate him.
Best known source is Euripidess Bacchae
The Birth and Early Youth of Dionysus
Zeus falls in love with Se
9: Myths of Fertility: Demeter and Related Myths
Female forces share much in common
No one Great Goddess in Greek mythology but divided
Demeter most like the Great Goddess
Connection to the Underworld
Demeter and Persephone
Persephone called Kore mea
8: Myths of the Olympians: Female Deities
Ambiguous male roles, clear female roles.
Hestia, the Hearth
Defined domestic and civic space.
Dionysus takes her place on Olympus according to some.
Aphrodite, Goddess of Sexual Love
War and Love give birth t
7: Myths of the Olympians: Male Deities
Apollo, God of Prophecy.
Earlier called wolflike perhaps to show his protection of shepherds from wolves.
Rules Delphi, and he comes from the north
Sometimes called a sun god, and his twin sister Artemis was the
6: Myths of the Olympians
Cronos=Golden-Race king or Cannibal Tyrant
Zeus Cronus born.
Apollo most complex
Zeus, Lord of the Sky
Aegis and lightning-bolt weapons
Bull and Eagle symbols
5: Myths of Creation: Mortals
Little interest in mortals origin
Sometimes Zeus creator, sometimes Prometheus
Ovid=Prometheus Creates Humans by mixing primal earth with water.
Prometheus, Protector of Mortals
forelearner Real name means thie
4: Myths of Creation
Bible=God outside of creation, not with Greeks or Norse.
Cosmogony=story that explains the origin of the world (kosmos means world).
Hesiod important Theogony explains the Greek rise to power.
Beginning has Chaos chasm, Gaea Earth
3: Development of Classical Myth
Beginnings of Greek Myth
Catal Hyk (chatal hooyuk) oldest known agricultural community.
Artemis Potnia Theron (lady of the beasts) role to promote the abundance of game (one of the oldest
2: Cultural Context of Greek Myths
Peloponnesus and Argolis includes Mycenaeand Argos
Laconia or Lacedaemon-includes Sparta
Early Bronze Age (3000-1600)
1: Myth Introduction
A traditional story with collective importance.
Has no author
Myth contains all variants.
Three types of myth: Divine Myth, Legend, and Folktale.
Sometimes just abstraction
Circulation and Gas Exchange
- Cardiovascular System - heart
a) atrium, blood into heart.
b) ventricle, blood away.
- 3 main kinds of blood vessels:
1) arteries, to capillaries.
arteries to capillaries
2) veins, away from capillaries.
Animal Structure and Function
Anatomy - study of the structure
(form or morphology) of an organism.
- what it has, ex. asymmetric ear
openings in Barn Owls.
Physiology - study of the functions
an organism performs.
- what it does, ex. differential sound
Phylum Chordata continued.
- reptiles (including birds) and
- Subclass Anapsida line.
Order Testudines - modern
turtles, only living reptiles with
- scales, many as keratinized
scutes to form
Most commonly listed shared derived features of chordates,
seen at least in some part of their lives:
1) notochord - flexible rod-like structure extending length of
the body, axis for muscle attachment.
- displaced by vertebrae
Subphylum Trilobita - all extinct, lived in
Paleozoic shallow seas, and disappeared
during Permian extinctions.
- about 4,000 species described from fossils.
- many segments, which tended to fuse in
Phylum Arthropoda - body segmentation
Animal Evolution - what is an
- not that easy to define.
- list of characteristics taken
4) most reproduce sexually with diploid stage dominating the life
- zygote undergoes mitotic divisions.
1) multicellular, he
Transcription and Translation
Genes and proteins operate in
- genes are nucleic acids, proteins are
- yet, both form polymers composed of
- genes provide instructions for making
- bridge between
organic + O2
6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2
- overall simplified equation for photosynthesis is reverse
that of cellular respiration.
- water molecule is split:
Cellular Respiration - main
catabolic pathway for the
production of ATP.
- oxygen is consumed along
with an organic fuel.
- in mitochondria.
- analogy: gasoline burns in
engine after O2 mixed with
- food burns, exhaust is CO2
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts are NOT part of the
- their membrane proteins are not made in the ER.
- by free ribosomes and those within themselves.
- have own ribosomes.
- have own DNA programs the production of proteins with
Lipid - not include polymers, little or no affinity for water.
1) fat - 1 glycerol (head) and 3 fatty acids (tails), bound
together with an ester linkage.
- glycerol - alcohol with 3 carbons, each with a hydroxyl
- fatty acid - 16-