Chapter 1 (Pg. 1-25) Notes
-Past Belief, later proved false
-Meat isolated from flys grew maggots, no flys = no maggots
-Theory of Spontaneous Generation came in to question
-Heated plant matter in a vial
Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism
1. Distinguish among metabolism, catabolism, and anabolism.
Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within a living organism.
Catabolism refers to degradative reactions that release energy (exothermic) by br
Chapter 6 Microbial Growth and Nutrition
1. Describe the role of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, trace elements, and vitamins in
Carbon is used as an energy source for most organisms.
A hydrogen source is needed to conduct redox re
Chapter 14 Infection, Infectious Diseases, and Epidemiology
1. Distinguish among the types of symbiosis.
Mutualism is when both members benefit from their interactions.
Commensalism is when one member benefits with no significant
Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics
1. Compare and contrast the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
genome is all nucleotide sequences in a cell
2. Describe the structure of DNA, and how it facilitates the ability of DNA to act as genetic material.
Chapter 1 - A Brief History of Microbiology
1. Describe the world-changing scientific contributions of Leeuwenhoek.
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek contributions include: quality of his handcrafted microscopes; observational
skills; detailed reports over 50 years;
Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function
1. Describe the four major processes of living cells (Viruses do not exhibit these processes).
Growth as living things can grow in size.
Reproduction refers to increase in number via sexually or asexually.
Chapter 9 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment Basic
1. Define the following terms.
Sterilization: Kills and destroys all forms of microbial life including viruses.
Disinfection: use of physical or chemical agents (UV light, heat, alcohol, bl
Chapter 10 Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body:
1. Explain the principle of selective toxicity.
Applying an antimicrobial agent that is more toxic to a pathogen than to the pathogens
2. List six mechanisms by which antimicr
Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Microbiology
1. Define matter, atom, and element and explain how these terms relate to one another.
Matter = anything that takes up space and mass.
Atom = smallest chemical unit of matter.
Element = a piece of matter composed
Chapter 13 Characterizing and Classifying Viruses, Viroids, and
1. Discuss viral genomes in terms of dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA, ssRNA, and number of segments of nucleic
Viruses have single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), or sing
BMS 212 Introduction to Microbiology
Make sure you read the questions carefully and pick the best answer. Please use a #2 pencil and fill in the
bubbles completely. You may keep your exam for study purposes. Good Luck!
BMS 212 Introductory Microbiology
Answer Key for Exam 1
Chapter 15 Innate Immunity
1. List and briefly describe the three lines of defense in the human body.
(1) Pathogen needs to gain access, either by penetrating the surface of the skin or through portals of entry.
(2) Pathogen needs to overcome macrophage
Chapter 12 Characterizing and Classifying Eukaryotes
State four reasons why eukaryotic reproduction is more complex than prokaryotic reproduction.
Most eukaryotic DNA is packaged with histone proteins.
Eukaryotes have a variety of methods for reproduc
Chapter 11 Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes
1. Identify the following shapes of prokaryotic cells to the right:
2. Describe the formation and function of bacterial endospores.
Endospores are a defensive measure and is found in Gram-positive bac