A table or graph that displays the number of times
(frequency) a particular observation occurs.
Four scales of Measurement Nominal, Ordinal, Interval or Ratio
Groups or categories, Measures data by name only, Mut
Alternative hypothesisthere is a difference or relationship in the population under study.
Independent variable the variable to be manipulated; experimental or treatment variable.
dependent variable the variable that is measured to determine the effects
Model A method of representing phenomenon with minimal use of words
Schematic Models (or conceptual maps)
theoretical framework framework of a study based in theory
conceptual frameworkframework of a study with roots in a conceptual
examples: intelligence or knowledge tests / 6 minute walk test to assess fitness
ability of a test / instrument / measure to predict results obtained
using a "gold standard" or criterion measure already known to be valid
Qualitative Data Gathering
Gain access and trust
Interview & observe
Qualitative Data Analysis
Coding Used in Qualitative Data Analysis. Bracketing to create categories to discover the
underlying themes (nor more than 5 or 6)
Constant Comparison Used in
subject has the right to withdraw at any time.
document that provides information about study and requires
subject to sign indicating willingness to participate. Lists: purpose of study, risks/benefits,
objects or people are assigned to categories ~ may be coded by name, number, letter, or
symbol ~ codes have no quantitative value ~ every subject can only be assigned to one
Examples: (0) no and (1) yes; (0) male and (1)
Overall science of extracting info from a set of data and using the info to
make inferences about that larger set of data.
the study of variation.
Descriptive statistics statistical data concerning the attributes of a population.
Hospital newborn inpatient a patient who is born in the hospital at the beginning of the
current inpatient hospitalization. (usually counted separately in calculating some hospital
performance indicators. ex: average daily census, occupancy rate)
Cohort prospective study in which subjects are separated into two groups based upon
their exposures or health characteristics and then followed forward to determine whether
they develop the disease.
Historical prospective past records are used to collect