*Increased testosterone levels have been associated with dominance hierarchies in
some nonhuman primates, but the human analog is less clear.
*Hormones contribute to aggressiveness to some degree, but culture and the
environment can certainly act to enco
*Helpful vs. Uncooperative
*Organized vs. disorganized
*Careful vs. careless
*Disciplined vs. impulsive
Williams, Scatterwhite, and Best (1999) ACL re-scored in terms of the big 5
*They found that gender-stereotype differentiation tende
Collectivism vs individualism
Collectivism is when people believe in the group more than they do self,
whereas individualists believe more in self than the group (think Americans; what does
every commercial promote? YOUR happiness)
Categorical vs holisti
*2/3 agreement within country
*3/4 across countries
*Across all cultures
Williams and Best (1982) second type of analysis on their data:
*They scores the adjectives in each country in terms of
*Japan and South Africa-rated male
Masculinity versus Femininity (Hofstede)
*This dimension refers to the degree to which a culture will foster, encourage, or
maintain differences between males and females.
-Highest masculine scores: Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy
-Lowest Masculine Scor
Mixture of studies
the extent to which people accept an unequal distribution of power and status in
organizations and institutions.
the extent to which people feel uncomfortable with ambiguous situations
*Generally refers to the biological and physiological differences men and
women, the most obvious being the anatomical differences in their reproductive
*Other biological differences between the sexes include physiological, hormonal, and
Williams and Best (1982)
30 different national cultures. men = aggressive, dominant and autonomous.
women = nurturant, deferent and interested in affiliation. sample was uni students, also
may have been influenced by media stereotypes.
Barry, bacon and C
Questions of meaning are derived from observing this
Layer of culture that answers what is true
Layer of culture that answers what is right
Layer of culture that answers what is real
5 parts of missions:
*Emotional bond formed with others.
*Women get more jealous if men do this.
*Intersex/male dresses in more feminine way but doesn't identify as male or
*A measure of genes contributed to