o A network of longitude and latitude lines on a map or chart that relates points on a
map to their true locations on the earth.
o A world projection that reduces distortion by cutting or slicing the projection, thus
Clarke Ellipsoid of 1866
o A reference ellipsoid published in 1866. It was adopted by the U.S. Coast and
Geodetic Survey of 1880 for charting North America and is the basis for the North
American Datum of 1927.
o A datum (plural datums) defines the
A system of computer hardware, software, software, and procedures designed to support
the capture, management, manipulation, analysis, modularity, and display of spatially
referenced data for solving complex planning and management problems
o A representation of the surface of the earth's gravity field, which is approximately
the same as mean sea level. Unlike the sphere and ellipsoid, the surface of the
geoid is irregular (although it is smoother than the earth's physical surface).
o International Earth Rotation & Reference Service. The body responsible for
maintaining global time and reference frame standards.
o International Reference Meridian (also IERS Reference Meridian). The prime
meridian (zero line of longitude) ma
o A figure on a map used to display the cardinal directions (North, South, West and
East) and their intermediate points.
o ArcGIS term for any geometric border of a graphic.
o A graphical representation of the relations
o The transformation of unmapped geographical information into map form. It
involves selection, classification, simplification, combination, smoothing and
Cartographic Error: Design Error
o Errors resulting from cons
o Geographic Information System. A system designed to capture, store, manipulate,
analyze, manage, and present all types of geospatial data. It is the merging of
cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology.
Intermediate Scale Map
o A m
o The "view" or conceptual center of a projection system.
o Meridian passing through the center of a projection, often a straight line about
which the projection is symmetrical.
o Also called a Minimum Error
o A point on the surface of a sphere that is diametrically opposite another point. For
example, the geographic north pole is the antipodal point of the geographic south
Cartesian coordinate system
o A system of locating a point on a