680
APPENDIX A
Chapter 1: Collecting Data
In Chapter 1, we learn about appropriate ways to collect data. A dataset consists
of values for one or more variables that record or measure information for each
of the cases in a sample or population. A variable
Math 260
Midterm Exam I Review
Applied Sta8s8cs-I
Logis8cs
Scope: Chapters 1-2 of the Lock5 text
Time: 75 minutes
Format: No books or notes, but the you will be allowed to use SPSS, class applets (e.g.,
randomizer and StatKey). You will also have access t
Chapter Summaries
681
Chapter 2: Describing Data
In Chapter 2, we learn about methods to display and summarize data. We use
statistical plots to display information and summary statistics to quantify aspects of
that information. The type of visualization
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Probability Key Terms
Law-of Large Numbers the Law of Large Numbers states that the long-run relative
frequency of repeated independent events settles down to the true relative frequency as
the number of trials increases.
Marginal probability- In a joint
Comparing Two Groups Key Terms
Paired data- Data are paired when the observations are collected in pairs or the
observations in one group are naturally related to observations in the other. The
simplest form of pairing is to measure each subject twice- of
Randomness Key Terms
Addition Rule- If A and B are disjoint events, then the probability of A or B is P(A or B)=
P(A) + P(B).
Complement Rule- the probability of an event occurring is 1 minus the probability that it
doesnt occur.
Conditional probabilityP
Probability Models Key Terms
Normal model- The most famous continuous probability model, the Normal is used to
model a wide variety of phenomenon whose distributions are unimodal and symmetric.
The Normal model is also used as an approximation to the Bino
Random Variables Key Terms
Empirical Rule- In a Normal model, 68% of values fall within one standard deviation of
the mean, 95% fall within two standard deviations of the mean, and 99.7% fall within
three standard deviations of the mean.
Addition Rule for
Inference for Counts: Chi-squared tests Key Terms
Cell- A cell of a two way table is one element of the table corresponding to a specific
row and a specific column. Table cells can hold:
1. Counts
2. Percentages
3. Measurements on other variables
Chi-squa
Testing hypotheses about Proportions Key Terms
Alpha level- The threshold P- value that determines when we reject a null hypothesis.
Alternative hypothesis- The hypothesis that proposes what we should conclude if we
find the null hypothesis to be unlikely
Inference for Regression Key Terms
Confidence interval for the regression slope- When the assumptions are satisfied, we
can find a confidence interval for the slope parameter. The critical value depends on the
confidence interval specified and on the stud
Introduction to Data mining Key Terms
Algorithm- A set of instructions used for calculation and data processing. The algorithm
specifies how the model is built from the data.
Classification problem- A prediction problem that involves a categorical respons
Sampling Distributions and Confidence Intervals for Proportions Key Terms
Central Limit Theorem- The Central Limit Theorem states that the sampling distributions
model of the sample proportions and means is approximately Normal for large n,
regardless of