LEVELING
DEFINITIONS:
Leveling General term applied to any of the various processes by which
Elevations of points or Differences in Elevations are determined.
Elevation The vertical distance from a Datum, usually NGVD, to a point or
object.
Datum Any l

Area Computed by Coordinates
With modern day survey equipment and computers. Coordinate values for boundary
corners are very common and easily extracted. To determine area of a traverse, we can
use these coordinates. The Alternative Coordinate Method is a

6655 Cotter
concrete Sterling Heights, MI 48314
Foundations Phone: 586.731.6804
‘9 network A M A L I 0 Fax: 586.731.3732
amalioestimating@comcast.net
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VOLUMES
Earthwork operations consist of the movement of materials to establish a predetermined
surface for the construction of public and private works and determination of the volume
of materials moved. Before a construction project involving earthwork c

PARABOLIC VERTICAL CURVES (VC)
PURPOSE OF VERTICAL CURVES:
Vertical curves are normally used to provide a smooth transition between grade lines in a
vertical plane for roads and railroads.
TYPES OF VERTICAL CURVES:
Sag ( g2 > g1)
Crest ( g1 > g2)
VERTIC

ANGLES AND DIRECTION
CONVENTION FOR DESIGNATING ANGLES:
Backsight (BS)
Instrument Point
Foresight (FS)
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT:
Sexagesimal System: Circle divided in to 360 parts (degrees)
Units: Degrees (), Minutes (), Seconds ().
1 = 60
1 = 60
Centesi

TAPING CORRECTIONS
No measurement can be perfectly performed; thus, all measurements (except counting)
must contain some error. Surveyors must use measuring techniques that minimize
random errors to acceptable levels and they must make corrections to syst

Rectangular Coordinates
The rectangular coordinates of a point on a traverse can be defined as the perpendicular
distances (coordinates) of a point from a pair of axes that intersect at right angles,
reckoned in the plane defined by those axes (ASCM Defin

Topography
Topography refers to the process of measuring and maping the elevations and physical
features of a site in plan view. Usually, these measurements and subsequent mapping are
used for designing public and private infrastructure projects.
The fiel

THEORY OF MEASUREMENTS
MEASUREMENTS MADE IN SURVEYING:
Horizontal Angles
Horizontal Distances
Vertical Angles
Vertical Distances
Slope Distances
PRECISION:
Degree of repeatability among various measurements of the same quantity.
ACCURACY:
Absolute ne