Variance
Deviation Score
Variability
5. What is the relationship between central tendency and variability?
Central tendency and variability represent different characteristics of a distribution. Distributions
of scores can have identical variability but d
Chapter 8 Study Problems
1. Distinguish between directional and nondirectional tests.
2. A group of 200 students took the Kaplan course in hopes that it would improve
their SAT scores on the math section. The students had an average of 520 after the
cours
Catherines Russia
The early Romanov dynasty:
Empress Catherine the Great
Reigned from 17621796
Born in Prussia (now
Poland)
Likely had her husband,
Emperor Peter III,
assassinated
Fascinated by
Enlightenment culture,
especially French
Authored plays, poe
New Currents, early 19th
Century:
The Golden Age of Russian
poetry
Alexander I
Ruled from 18011825
Considered a
liberal reformer in
his early years,
though never
fulfilled his
promise:
Began, but did not
complete, a
Mikhail Speransky
Early favorite of
Tsa
Evgeny Onegin:
history and context
The 1825 Interregnum
Emperor Alexander
I died unexpectedly
in Taganrog in
1825;
The heir apparent,
his brother
Constantine,
abdicated the
throne
His younger
Emperor Nicholas I
Ruled from 18251855
More severely
autocrati
End of the Golden Age
Alexander Griboedov
17951829
Worked as a
diplomat to Persia,
where he was
killed in an uprising
Literary reputation
rests on one thenunpublished work:
the satiric play
Woe from Wit
Mikhail Lermontov
18141841
Family name derives
fro
Introduction: Kievan Rus
The Slavs
Kievan Rus




Founded around 880 by
Prince Oleg (the Seer);
Grew to an extensive,
but often nonunified
territory governed by
competing princes;
At its height (11th
century) was the largest
state in Europe, and
boas
After the Mongol Yoke:
the rise of Muscovy
Monomakhs Cap
The Onion dome
Though its the
quintessential
Russian
architectural
element, its origin
is unknown and
still hotly debated:
likely 16th century
or earlier
Most certainly
Church of the Transfiguration
The Mongol
Yoke
Europe, 11th century
The decline of Kievan Rus
Disintegration
of Byzantine
Empire;
Division of land
between heirs;
Power struggle
between
states;
Shifting
The Lay of Igors Campaign
Dramatizes the defeat of Prince Igors
forces against Polov
Time of Troubles
Boris Godunov (15511605)
Former head of the
oprichnina, also
Ivans chess
partner;
Believed to have
murdered young
Prince Dmitri,
although the
historical record is
murky;
The Time of Troubles (15981613)
Period after the death of Boris in
The Heritage of Byzantium
Icons and Imagery
John of
Damascus


(c. 676Opposed the Iconoclasts (those who
749) Icons)
destroyed
Two periods of enforced iconoclasm in
the Byzantine empire:


730787
814842
John, an Arab Christian religious
leader, wrot
Questions.
1. True/False. The independent group t test is typically used to analyze the relationship between
two variables when the independent variable has three or more levels.
2. True/False. The alternative hypothesis for an independent group t test im
Ch. 7:
Using Statistics for Inference and
Estimation
Monday, May 30, 2011
Inferential Statistics
Estimating population from statistics obtained
from a sample
Monday, May 30, 2011
Estimators
An unbiased estimator
The value obtained from samples equals
Additional Hypothesis Testing
Concepts
(1) Onetailed vs. Twotailed testing
(2) Type I and Type II Error
(3) alpha level vs. probability (or
significance level)
Wednesday, June 1, 2011
Twotailed, a.k.a., nondirectional test;
places .025 at each end
Chapter 8:
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
Monday, September 26, 2011
Inferential Tests: The ztest
and the onesample ttest
Allow you to make probability statements about
whether a sample of scores has a certain
population mean.
Examples:
Can people
Chapter 9:
The Independent Groups and Paired
Samples ttests
Monday, October 3, 2011
Purpose of the tests:
Determine if two sets of scores are likely to come from different
populations.
Assumptions of the tests:
Samples of the two groups are independently
Beyond Hypothesis Testing (chs 8
& 9):
Condence Intervals
Strength of the relationship between variables
Estimating power and determining sample size (Tues 10/11)
Monday, October 3, 2011
Condence Intervals
A condence interval (CI) is a computed
lower and
This value is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.
This value is the probability of a "miss."
A "miss" can only occur when the reality in the population is this.
A "false alarm" can only occur when the statistical outcome is t
More concepts about inferential testing:
How does alpha level relate to (and differ
from) statistical signicance level?
How do I know how much power I have?
What is enough power?
Monday, October 10, 2011
Statistical Significance levels
Alpha level:
A recent, open ended, O3FA addon study has shown beneficial effect of O3FA on irritability in 19
patients with mood disorders [15]. These patients had already been receiving different combinations of
pharmacotherapy and talk therapy. Despite their trea
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Chapter 10: Analysis of Variance
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1. What general form does the alternative hypothesis take in Analysis of Variance?
A
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2. If you reject the null hypothesis in Analysis of Variance, what can you conclude
(without runn
1. What is unbiased estimator? What is a biased estimator?
2. What is a sampling distribution of the mean? How is a sampling distribution of the mean
different from a frequency distribution?
3. What is the central limit theorem?
4. According to the centra
Birth of an Empire
Peter the Great
16721725
As a young man,
traveled
extensively in
Western Europe,
often disguised as
a diplomat;
Launched an
ambitious slate of
reforms focused on
St. Petersburg (1703)
The New Capital:
Intended as a Window to Europe
Bui