University of Southern California
Sol Price School of Public Policy
Instructor: Mark Velez
Name: Arvin Dicioco
Second Excel Assignment
Using the Excel spreadsheet Nations.xls, write fo
1. Determining choices: The number of steps you have will determine how many choices are
available. Basic multiplication principal.
If a choice consists of two steps, of which the first can be made in M ways, and for each of these
I. Basic rules of probability.
Classical notion of probability: Where all outcomes are equally possible, probability is the
likelihood that any selected event (or elementary event) will occur.
Probabilities are real numbers between 0 and 1.
If an event is
Measures of Central Tendency : Figures computed from a set of scores that describe the middle
of a distribution.
Mean(aka, average): The sum of all scores divided by the number of scores.
X-BAR = Ux/N. Things to know about the mean (x-bar)
it provides us
Three things related to sampling that impact the strength of your conclusion when conducting
1. sample size, as this increases, so does the strength of your conclusion
2. Representative-ness. The more your sample looks like your populati
Operationalize your concepts.
Operationalization: The process of how we are going to go about measuring the
concepts in a study.
Select measures: What will you choose to represent your concepts in the study?
For example, what will you use to represent con
Notes: lecture 2
a. Academic: Uses hypo-deductive model to set up research projects.
b. Usually starts with theory/research questions.
c. The process is careful and detailed.
d. Often slow.
e. Never completely sure of your answer. Answers are only probabl
Debate about world views:
The first is based in physics: The world is objectively real and can be quantified
numbers. The goal of science is to explain, predict and control.
The second view emphasizes subjectivity and interpretation. The wo
Raw scores often will not tell us much so we have to present them in a way that makes them easy
to understand. So we use distributions. Distribution (there are different types): an arrangement of
data so that it is visually interpretable.
1. Frequency: gr
Variable: properties or characteristics of an object that can assume two or more different values
A number of types
a. Discrete/categorical: a variable that can take on a finite number of values (sex, pregnancy,
i. Dichotomous: when a variable can
Hw 1 Class Terms
Statistics: A branch of mathematics dealing with numerical data. It is concerned with the
collection, organization, and interpretation of data according to well-defined procedures.
Data: What is given: Observations made upon our en