1. Diverse nutritional types are scattered among the major groups of bacteria
2. The two largest groups that are the protobacteria and the Gram-positive bacteria
3. Subgroup: Gamma Proteobacteria
4. Examples include sulfur bacteria such as chroma
Bio Midterm 3 Study Questions:
Describe the key plant adaptions to life on land
o Land plants maintain moisture in their cells using a waxy cuticle and
cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata
o Obtain water and minerals from roots in the so
Chapter 11 Notes:
Organisms respond to changes in their environment
Control of Gene expression:
Gene regulation: the turning on and off of genes
Gene expression: is the overall process of information flow from
genes to proteins.
o The control
Bio Midterm Study Guide
All things are composed of one or more cells
The cell is the basic unit of life
New cells arise from pre-existing cells.
No bound membrane
DNA is just in the cell
Simpler and smaller
Virus: Nucleic acid genome surrounded by a protein coat
Viruses are simpler than a bacteria and are non living because they
cannot reproduce or carry out any metabolic activities outside of the host cell.
They only reproduce in the hos
RNA synthesis is catalyzed by RNA polymerase, little mouse, which pries
the DNA strands apart and hook together the RNA nucleotides.
RNA synthesis follows the same base-pairing rules as DNA, except uracil
Promoter is th
The rise and fall of dominant groups reflect:
Continental drift: process in which plates move
The Earth moves and in three occasions(1.1 BYA, 600 MYA,
250MYA) all of the landmasses of Earth came together and broke apart.
Estimated to happen again in 250
The History of Life on Earth(Chapter 25.1-25.4, 25.6)
Macroevolution: Changes over large time scales shown by fossil records.
Emergence of first terrestrial vertebrates
The origin of photosynthesis
Long term impact of mass extinctions
Reproductive cycles of phages: two alternative mechanisms by which double
stranded DNA viruses can reproduce.
Process that culminates in the death of the host cell.
Virulent phage is a phage that reproduces only by the lyctic cycle.
Reproduction and Adaptation
1. Prokaryotes method of reproduction is through binary fission (they can divide
every 1-3 hours)
2. Fastest prokaryote will reproduce in less than 20 mins
3. Known fact: at the rate of this reproduction going unchecked, a prok
Protist is the informal name of the kingdom of mostly unicellular eukaryotes.
Advances in eukaryotic systematics have caused the classification of protist to
change significantly so they are now five separate kingdoms.
Protist are euk
Genomes and their Evolution(Chapter 21.1)
Genomics is the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
Comparisons of genomes among organisms provide information about the
evolutionary history of genes and taxonomic groups.
Human Genome Project off
From Gene to Protein(Chapter 17.1, 17.2, 17.4)
The information content of DNA is in the form of specific sequences of
nucleotides, genetic material.
The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the
synthesis of proteins
Reveals major changes in the history of life on earth.
Sedimentary rocks are the richest source of fossils and the layers are
Fossil record not perfect as not all are expressed in fossils or have been
Fimbriae and Pili
1. Some prokaryotes have something called fimbriae and pili, which allow them to
stick to their substrate or other individuals in a colony
2. Fimbriae are hair-like protein appendages
3. They are also occasionally called attachment pili)
Evolution of Viruses
Viruses probably evolved as bit of cellular nucleic acid because they can
only reproduce within cells.
Plasmids, circular DNA, and transposons are candidates for source of
viral genomes, they are all mobile genetic elements.
Diverse Nutritional and Metabolic Adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes
1. Phototrophs obtain energy from light
2. Chemotrophs obtain energy from chemicals
3. Autotrophs require carbon dioxide as their carbon source
4. Heterotrophs require an organic nu
Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea:
Prokaryotes are almost everywhere!
1. Most prokaryotes are microscopic, but even though they lack in size, they
definitely make up for it in numbers
2. There are more prokaryotes present in a handful of soil than the numb
Which distribution pattern does territoriality produce?
Organisms whose life history adaptation is called semelparity
Produce a large batch of young and die
Which of the following is not an outcome of high population density?
Predators tend to